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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| January-December  | Volume 48 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 19, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Psychophysiological analysis of Kriya Yoga as per Patanjala Yoga Sutra
Sarita Vivek Bapat
January-December 2016, 48(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198701  
Background: Kriya Yoga that includes Tapas,vadhyaya, and Ishwara pranidhana as given by Patanjala Yoga Sutra finds its mention twice in the text as Kriya Yoga and as Niyama. The double occurrence has significance. Aim: The aim of this work is to carry out an analysis of what Kriya Yoga is, what is the purpose of repeating three components of Kriya Yoga, i.e., Tapas,vadhyaya, and Ishwara pranidhana in Sadhana pada. Method: The three steps of Tapas,Svadhyaya, and Ishwara pranidhana were analyzed in detail. The important difference of this analysis from other commentators is to analyze the first two steps of Kriya Yoga from the psychophysiological point of view. Analysis: The Kriya Yoga brings psychophysiological changes leading to the total control of the body, i.e., internal functions of the body. It also leads to surrender to the internal supreme existence of one's own being. The process of Tapas, Svadhyaya, and Ishwara pranidhana, as per Kriya Yoga, converts a common person into a yogi. Conclusion: The process of Kriya Yoga facilitates the removal of resistance within i.e. preparing condition of chitta which is necessary for entering into Samadhi is fulfilled.
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EDITORIAL
Exploring interventional authenticity in yoga research
Ranjeet Singh Bhogal
January-December 2016, 48(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198700  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Bio-electrical activity: As a valid variable in yoga research
Dattatreya Devarao Kulkarni, Ranjeet Singh Bhogal, Anita Verma, Sanjay Uddhav Shete
January-December 2016, 48(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198704  
Background: The claims of ancient yogic text indicate that yoga practice leads to enhanced body awareness; however, the present research tool, as seen in research reviews, to measure such psychophysiological phenomenon aspect of body awareness has not been proven so far. Therefore, this study is taken to propose bio-electrical activity as a suitable experimental variable to quantify the awareness phenomena of yoga practices. Objective: To explore conceptual plausibility for establishing a suitable cellular electrophysiological variable to quantify body awareness. Method: The separate reviews of past research literature on both whole-body bio-electrical activity and human information processing (HIP) aspect of body awareness in relation to yoga were explored. The studies which indicate improvement in energy storage, energy circulation, and energy expenditure at cellular and somato-cortical levels were included in this review. Furthermore, studies indicating enhancement in brain abilities such as perception, attention, learning, and motor functions demonstrating that profile of bio-electrical activity may be a suitable parameter common to both quantification of body awareness and whole-body bio-electrical activity were included. Results: The present study explores the bio-electrical energy dynamics of human consciousness. The bio-electrical response variables, such as impedance (Z), reactance (Xc), and relative arrival time of current (I), and voltage (V), measured as phase angle of the cell, have been proposed to be a valid tool to understand enhancing psychobiological basis of body awareness due to yogic practices. Conclusion: The bio-electrical measure of cell activity reflects HIP aspect of awareness from cellular level to whole-body level.
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Ahiṃsā: An analytical study on the basis of commentaries of Yoga Sūtra
Bandita Satapathy
January-December 2016, 48(1):42-46
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198706  
Background: Ahiṃsā is a word formed by adding the negative prefix“a” to the word hisā, a derivative from the root“his” meaning“to harm” and“to injure.” Accordingly, Ahiṃsā carries the meaning of nonkilling. The most evolved concept of Ahiṃsā can be traced out in the Pātañjala Yoga Sūtras. Aim: The aim of the paper is to make a comparative study of multiple commentaries on Patañjali's Yoga Sūtra and to bring out the import of the concept of Ahiṃsā. Method: The concept of Ahiṃsā has been studied through the identification of commentaries. As well, a comparative and analytical study has been done using primary sources. Results: The study of various commentaries leads to the conclusion that most of the commentators have a common observation regarding the nature of Ahiṃsā, essentially necessary for yoga seekers. Conclusion: The comparative studies of commentaries of Pātañjala Yoga Sūtra bring out the essence of Ahiṃsā most objectively.
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Differential impact of Shavasana and meditation on memory scores in healthy college students: A randomized controlled study
Ranjeet Singh Bhogal, Ghanshyam Singh Thakur, Sanjay Uddhav Shete
January-December 2016, 48(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198705  
Background: Yogic relaxation techniques endow its practitioners with the relaxation of Citta (i.e., mind, intellect, and ego) and freedom from psycho-physiological fatigue. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to compare the differential impact of the guided instructions in Shavasana and meditation in supine posture on verbal, spatial, and associate memory scores. Research Design: This was a randomized controlled trial. Method: Randomly selected 45 healthy college students were equally divided into meditation group (n = 15), Shavasana group (n= 15), and control group (n = 15), with age range of 22–30 years. All individuals were assessed for total memory through Wechsler Memory Scale before and after the 30-day intervention of yoga, consisting of two types of relaxation techniques (Shavasana and meditation in supine posture). The sessions were of 30 min each for both the intervention groups for 6 days a week. Results: Results showed significant changes in memory scores among meditation and Shavasana groups as compared to the control group. Meditation group had shown a higher magnitude of change as compared to the other groups. Within-group comparison revealed significant changes in memory scores in both meditation (P < 0.001) as well as in Shavasana (P < 0.01) groups. Conclusion: This study has concluded that the guided relaxation techniques of yoga could bring a deeper relaxation at the psycho-physiological level which, in turn, could bring about a deeper impact at higher psychological levels resulting into significant improvement in verbal, spatial, and associate memory scores.
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Efficacy of yoga modules given by Swami Kuvalayananda for the undergraduate physical education curriculum
Yogesh Kumar
January-December 2016, 48(1):23-29
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198707  
Background: In Uttar Pradesh, yoga is included in the undergraduate (UG) curriculum either as an optional topic of physical education practical or as a compulsory paper of foundation course in any 1 year of UG, by most of the state universities for the students. However, there is no uniformity in the yoga syllabus adopted by various universities. Swami Kuvalayananda, in his book“Āsanas,” has prescribed three yoga modules, namely, easy course, short course, and full course. Aim: The aim of this study was to survey whether the three courses as described in the book can be used as a part of the model curriculum for the 3-year UG studies in physical education. Method: Along with a specifically prepared questionnaire, a photocopy of Appendixes I, II, and III of book“Āsanas” was sent to the participants to elicit their opinions regarding the yoga modules. Results: The results of the survey showed that three courses prescribed by Swami Kuvalayananda are scientifically and systematically arranged and are according to the laws of physical education training. The study showed that 84.60% of the survey participants agreed on introducing the three yoga modules prescribed by Swami Kuvalayananda as model yoga syllabus in the 3 successive years of the UG physical education curriculum. Conclusions: The results of the survey of academicians in higher education gave the conclusion that inclusion of yoga modules described in the book would increase the efficacy of the learning of UG students of physical education.
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New light on Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis: Based on the traditional Sanskrit commentaries of Yoga Sūtras
Jayaraman Mahadevan
January-December 2016, 48(1):30-36
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198702  
Context: Patañjali Yoga Sūtras classify Citta Vṛttis into the Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa (Desikachar, 2014, p.16). After this initial mention, there are no further discussions on this 2-fold classification of the Vṛttis in the text. Though Kleśas are discussed in the second chapter of text, the terms Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa themselves do not appear as part of discussion in the entire text after this initial mention. This gives rise to quite a few questions: What is the purpose of classifying the Vṛttis into Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa? What is meant by Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis? What is the nature of association of Kleśas with Vṛttis? Should both Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis be restrained or will it be enough if one focuses on restraining the Kliṣṭa Vṛttis? and so on. Aim: Though the Sūtras themselves do not reveal any further information on this, many Sanskrit commentaries of Yoga Sūtra, beginning from the one ascribed to Vyāsa, address these questions. The aim is to study these commentaries to find answers to the questions raised above. Method: A descriptive method of analyzing arguments is used because of the philosophico-literary nature of the study. Result: The commentaries along with presenting various possible answers to the questions on the Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis of the Yoga sūtras also reveal more relevant insights. Conclusion: On scrutiny of the commentaries, it becomes evident that all the techniques of Patañjali in the Yoga Sūtras, be it Abhyāsa vairagya, Kriyā Yoga, or Aṣṭāṅga Yoga, operate on the principles discussed under the Sūtra on Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa classification establishing Kliṣṭa and Akliṣṭa Vṛttis as the foundational principles of Yoga Sūtras. The diverse yogic methods and techniques that are prescribed centered onthe body, breath, emotions, intellect, etc., seem to be aimed only at the generation of progressively varying levels of Akliṣṭa Vṛttis and ultimately to overcome even these Akliṣṭa Vṛttis to attain absolute Citta-vṛitti-nirodha.
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Karma Yoga: A traditional perspective
Rajeshwar Mukherjee
January-December 2016, 48(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198708  
Background: Karma Yoga is a valid way to the ultimate realization of the Self. It has been emphasized by Yogeśvara Kṛṣṇa in Śrīmadbhagavadgītā. There is a prevalent misconception that the traditional exponents of Advaita Vedānta have declined to accept it as a path leading to supreme illumination. A careful and in-depth study of the traditional works of Śaṅkara and the modern interpretation by Swami Vivekananda reveal that Karma Yoga is not only a very effective path of yoga but it is a pre-requisite to the highest realization. Aim: This paper attempts to unravel the finer shades of Karma Yoga in the light of Vedānta. Method: The real import of yoga is derived from the etymology of the word 'yoga' and from the definition furnished by Patañjali in his Yogasūtra. Then, Karma Yoga has been substantiated as an independent path to the supreme realization through an analytical study. Ideas about the concept have been carefully culled from Śrīmadbhagavadgita and from the works of Swami Vivekananda. The entire discussion has been carried out without compromising Advaita i.e. non-duality, at any point. Results: The study reveals the following results (a) Karma Yoga can lead to the highest realization. (b) It is complementary to Jñāna Yoga and is not opposed to the findings of Advaita Vedānta. Conclusion: Karma Yoga performed in the spirit of discrimination or devotion consummates in the supreme vision of the non-dual reality.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Concept of Manas in Mimāṃsā Darśana
Hetal Amin, Rohit Sharma
January-December 2016, 48(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198703  
There are many different traditions of religion and philosophy handed over in regular succession. Although the explanation and interpretations of all Darśanas are different from one another, all Darśanas have their own separate codes of conduct and priority. Philosophy is the prime specialty as it fulfills the ultimate goal of life with depiction of liberation of the soul. The aim of Mimāṃsā is to unravel and make clear the mysterious and complex hymns of Vedas so as to facilitate proper interpretation of Vedic texts. In Indian culture, Manas has been described by various angles. Vedic, philosophical, and Ayurvedic literature has a vast and deep description of Manas. Philosophers either“Astika” or“Nastika” have described Manas Siddhanta vividly. Although there are several kinds of differences of opinions, all Darśanas accept the importance of Manas in the process of perception and even for the birth of any individual. An attempt is made to highlight the concept of Manas in Mimāṃsā Darśana in this article.
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