Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 119-127

Global research trend on yoga intervention in educational systems: A bibliometric study of three decades


1 Department of Yoga Science, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India
2 Patanjali Herbal Research Department, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India
3 Department of Yoga Science, University of Patanjali; Patanjali Herbal Research Department, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission19-May-2022
Date of Decision02-Aug-2022
Date of Acceptance18-Aug-2022
Date of Web Publication15-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vedpriya Arya
Patanjali Herbal Research Department, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, Uttarakhand -249 405
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ym.ym_60_22

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  Abstract 


Yoga is being used as a mind-body complementary and alternative medicine intervention to help people with specific physical and mental health issues. In terms of the study area, yoga is an attractive field with various scopes and also contributes to scientific research. In this context, the current study is simply aimed at fully identifying the function of yoga intervention on students in academic institutions, as well as evaluating the available research data in this sector. A search query of relevant keywords was strategized and optimized to extract the information of research articles published from 1992 to 2021 from the “Dimention.ai” database. The obtained dataset was analyzed using PRISMA to evaluate the effect of interventions. The results indicate that the United States has published the maximum number of scholarly publications (553) among all countries. If we talk about organisation Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana from India has published the most of the articles (39) in the field of yoga education. The journal “Mindfulness” (14) and author “Shirley Telles” (14) from the “Patanjali Research Foundation-India” have published the highest scholarly articles. In the bibliometric coupling of distinct clusters, the strongest link strengths among the authors, countries, and organizations were observed for “Khalsa, Satbir S.” (4915), “The United States” (47347), and “Harvard University” (8485), respectively. The current study indicated that yoga education studies have a huge spectrum of publications. Moreover, these bibliometric indicators provide significant endpoints to evaluate research output productivity and quality. The study's findings aid in developing a framework for additional research in the field of yoga and its usage in the academic environment.

Keywords: Bibliometric analysis, collaborative network, educational system, research trend, yoga intervention


How to cite this article:
Verma R, Vashisht A, Bhatt M, Gupta A, Om R, Dabas A, Arya V. Global research trend on yoga intervention in educational systems: A bibliometric study of three decades. Yoga Mimamsa 2022;54:119-27

How to cite this URL:
Verma R, Vashisht A, Bhatt M, Gupta A, Om R, Dabas A, Arya V. Global research trend on yoga intervention in educational systems: A bibliometric study of three decades. Yoga Mimamsa [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 6];54:119-27. Available from: https://www.ym-kdham.in/text.asp?2022/54/2/119/363810




  Introduction Top


Yoga has been practiced in India since ancient times as a philosophical or spiritual exercise to relieve people from all sorts of pain, suffering, and sickness.[1] For the last 50 years, it has not only been limited to India or Asian countries but has also been popular and practiced across the world.[2] The 69th “United Nations General Assembly” declared June 21 to be the International Day of Yoga, recognizing the physical, mental, social, and spiritual advantages of yoga.[3] Maharishi Patanjali was one of them who describes yoga as having 8 limbs namely, Yama (Social Conducts), Niyama (Personal Conduct), Asana (Perfect Body Position), Pranayama (Regulation of the Breathing), Pratyahara (Bring Senses Inward from the Outer Objects), Dharna (Regulation of the Meditation), Dhayana (Mindfulness), and Samadhi (Enlighten).[4]

Health is a physical requirement, intelligence is a cognitive requirement, and tranquillity is a spiritual prerequisite. Yoga can help to improve overall health, knowledge, and peace of mind.[5] It also helps in the process of controlling and refining the senses and is regarded as an efficient strategy for developing learning skills for Chitta Shuddhi and Nadi Shuddhi. Chitta Shuddhi is a mental purification process that governs sexual concepts, worldly desires, attachment (raga), vanity, hypocrisy, egoism, selfishness, jealousy, and other undesirable emotions, according to Swami Sivananda. Higher-order mental abilities such as telepathy, clairaudience, and presentiment are also improved by yoga because it helps in soothing and quieting the mind so that it can receive actual knowledge. Thus, yoga speeds up and simplifies the learning process.[6]

As per the United Nations reports, in most countries, the average period of school education is almost 1015 years. Therefore, schools can teach children healthy habits at an early age, improving their health and well-being.[7] As per the National Curriculum Strategy 2005, yogic education should be a required part of the curriculum in school systems.[8] It has become more popular across the world, appealing to a wide spectrum of individuals. There is a wealth of literature on ancient knowledge, and recent research on school-based yoga has exploded in the last three decades.[9] Yoga may be utilized as an applied science in a range of fields, including education, physical education and sports, health and family welfare, psychology, and health care, as well as a tool for boosting job performance, according to recent study trends. In this respect, India has always exaggerated its rich legacy in the realm of education and study, dating back to ancient times. The modern educational system also appears to fall short when it comes to the holistic development of the physique, intellect, and soul. Gandhi Ji has stated that education entails bringing out the utmost in a child's body, intellect, and spirit.[10] Citizens from various nations, such as Europe, the Middle East, and Portugal, flocked to India to receive a high-quality education. The “Gurukul Method” was one of India's oldest and most widely used popular education systems.[11]

The bibliometric analysis measures the “output” of individuals/research teams, institutions, and countries; identifies national and international networks; and maps the development of new (multi-disciplinary) fields of science and technology using data on the number and authors of scientific publications, articles, and citations therein (and in patents). This type of assessment can be used as a starting point for delving further into the specific qualities and outcomes of the study in a field, such as publishing adequacy, research quality, or actual outcomes.[2] The analysis should consider generalization, taking the broad scope of research to a more macro-scale.[12]

Several research studies on yoga and its application in the educational domain have been published, but none of them was able to provide a comprehensive insight into the published research potency of various endpoints with the coupling of yoga intervention in the educational sector. Hence, the present study aims to assess different bibliometric endpoints on the available research data in the field of yoga intervention for students. Moreover, the study intends to evaluate the collaborative extinct of different bibliometric indicators, including the source of publication, organization, countries, and contributing co-authors in the concerned realm. In addition, the current study seeks to identify a detailed overview of publication patterns and assess the reusability of previously published scholarly works. Insights from the study may assist the researchers to formalize the strategies for their upcoming research activities on this concerned subject.


  Materials and Methods Top


Study selection

This study was conducted by using an electronic search engine, “Dimention.ai”, selecting data from 1992 to 2021. All documents were searched either in their title or abstract by entering the keywords “yoga,” “education,” and “student” with the use of bullion operators (OR/AND). The search query used (”Yoga” OR “Yogic” OR “Yog” OR “Asan” OR “Asana” OR “Pranayama” OR “Meditation”) AND (”School” OR “Education” OR “Academic” OR “Academy” OR “University” OR “College” OR “Institute” OR “Institution”) AND (”Children” OR “Child” OR “Student” OR “Pupil” OR “Graduate” OR “Undergraduate” OR “Postgraduate”). The data selection criteria were performed manually. Only those research articles were selected that were related to Ashtanga Yoga and considered yoga intervention on the students of educational organizations. All the chapters, books, edited books, monographs, paper prints, etc., were excluded.

Analysis

To find prospective scientific papers on yoga intervention on students from 1992 to 2021, the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” was used for this study [Figure 1]. Initially, a total of 2282 records were found through database searching. The titles and abstracts of 2265 records were analyzed after excluding 17 duplicate records. For this study, a total of 336 chapters, books, edited books, monographs, and paper prints were excluded. The final dataset of 1929 records was used to assess different bibliometric indices. The bibliometric analysis was employed on the extracted dataset as per previously described methods.[13],[14] We created a Word Cloud to represent our research [Figure 2]. Bibliometric analysis was performed using VOSviewer software (developed by the bibliometric department of Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands), in which the focal point was on the “network” and “link strength” between authors, countries, and organizations, while quantitative analysis was performed using basic Microsoft Excel tools.
Figure 1: PRISMA flowchart of records through screening and selection process. PRISMA, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

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Figure 2: Word Cloud of yoga education research

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  Results Top


Publication growth and citation analysis from 1992 to 2021

The total number of research articles published from 1992 to 2021 was 1929. An exponentially increasing trend (R2 = 0.9682) of published articles was observed during the studied period [Figure 3]. The highest number of scholarly articles (1565) was published during the latest decade (20122021), followed by the second decade (20022011) with 308 published articles, and the least number of scholarly articles (73) were published during the first decade (19922001) [Figure 4]. From 1999 to 2013, the number of publications ranged from 11 to 99, except in 2003, which had just 7 publications. From 2014 through 2021, the number of publications ranges from 100 to 250, with the year 2020 (249), rather than 2021, having the largest number of publications (248). The total number of citations for the retrieved articles published from 1992 to 2021 was 27,527. The number of published articles increased over the study period [Figure 5], with the most citations (24,900) occurring in the most recent decade (20122021), followed by the second decade (20022011), which had 2481 citations, and the fewest citations (146) occurring in the past decade (19922001) [Figure 6]. The number of publications increased as compared to the previous years except for the years 1999 (24) and 2005 (112). A sudden increase of 30% in the number of citations was observed from 2019 (3164) to 2020 (4117).
Figure 3: Yoga education research publication trends per year

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Figure 4: Yoga education research publication (%) according to each decade

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Figure 5: Yoga education research citation per year

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Figure 6: Yoga education research citation (%) according to three decades

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Highly contributing countries and organizations

The overall research output in the field of yoga education came from 64 different nations throughout the world. A total of 1034 research publications came from the top ten nations that published yoga education research articles. The US (53.48%) was the most productive country in this field, followed by India (14.02%), Australia (5.51%), the UK (5.51%), and Canada (5.42%), respectively [Figure 7]. However, in terms of citations, the US continues to lead with 57.69% citations, followed by Canada (12.02%), Australia (8.07%), the UK (7.64%), and India (6.19%), respectively. In terms of citations per article in the top ten countries, Canada (49.93) ranks first, followed by Australia (32.95), the UK (31.19), and the US (24.28) [Figure 7].
Figure 7: World map of published articles and citations in yoga education research

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[Table 1] shows the most productive organizations in the field of yoga education research from 1992 to 2021. Out of the total of 1102 organizations, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) in India ranked first with 20.97% of all publications, followed by the Asan Medical Center in South Korea (17.20%), Harvard University (12.90%), and Brigham and Women's Hospital in the US (8.60%), respectively[Figure 8]. The remaining institutions are all from the US in the top 10 list. However, according to citations, the maximum number of citations comes from Stanford University (17.83%), followed by Harvard University (14.15%), Johns Hopkins University (13.24%), Brigham and Women's Hospital (10.63%), and Maharishi International University (9.86%), respectively. Furthermore, the top eight organizations are all from the US and one from South Korea. India (6.55%), on the other hand, is ranked ninth in terms of citations. In terms of citation per article, Stanford University, US (92.55), publishes most of the documents in the yoga education field, followed by Johns Hopkins University, US (54); Brown University, US (45.73); and Maharishi International University, US (43.31).
Table 1: Top 10 countries and organizations that published maximum yoga education research articles during 1992-2021

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Figure 8: List of top 10 Indian organizations (%) contributing in yoga education research

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[Table 2] shows the top 10 Indian institutions that published the most yoga education research publications from 1992 to 2021. There are 87 Indian organizations among the total of 1102 organizations, and from these 87 Indian organizations, the top 10 organizations were listed. S-VYASA ranked first with 48.75% of the top 10 publications, followed by Tata Institute of Social Sciences (10%), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (8.75%), Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (7.5%), and Patanjali Research Foundation (7.5%), respectively [Figure 9].
Table 2: Top 10 organizations from India that published maximum yoga education research articles during 1992-2021

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Figure 9: List of top 10 organizations (%) contributing to yoga education per year

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Most active authors

[Table 3] shows the top ten most productive authors in yoga education research from 1992 to 2021. Shirley Telles, with a total of 16.30% of articles from Patanjali Research Foundation, India, is the first author. Balaram Pradhan (14.13%) from S-VYASA, India, ranked second; Satbir S Khalsa (11.96%) from Brigham and Women's Hospital, US, ranked third; Bethany Butzer (10.87%) from Harvard University, US, ranked fourth; and Tamar Mendelson (8.70%) from Johns Hopkins University, US, ranked fifth [Figure 10]. In total, there are five authors each listed from India and the US in the list of the top 10 most productive authors in this field.
Table 3: Top 10 authors in yoga education publications during 1992-2021

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Figure 10: List of top 10 authors (%) contributing in yoga education research

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Based on the number of citations, Mark T. Greenberg (20.55%) from Pennsylvania State University, US, is the first author, followed by Satbir S. Khalsa (15.87%) from Brigham and Women's Hospital in the US, and Shirley Telles (15.03%) from Patanjali Research Foundation in India. However, in terms of the number of citations per article, Mark T. Greenberg (105.29) from Pennsylvania State University, US, published most of the articles in the yoga education field, followed by Jacinda K. Dariotis (76.33) from Johns Hopkins University, US; Tamar Mendelson (62.63), from Johns Hopkins University, US; and Satbir S Khalsa (51.73) from Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA.

Highly potential journals

[Table 4] shows the top 10 journals that published yoga education research from 1992 to 2021. Collectively, 1077 Indian and international journals published 1929 publications. In the top ten most productive journals on yoga education research, the maximum and the minimum number of publications were 51 and 16, respectively. The “Mindfulness” journal published the most papers (20.4%) [Figure 11], and the most citations (27.40%). Out of these top 10 productive journals, the “International Journal of Yoga” has the second-highest paper (14%) but stood fifth according to citations (10.88%). “M/C Journal - A Journal of Media and Culture” had the third-highest paper (12.8%) but stood eighth according to citations (0.36%). However, in terms of citation per article, “Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine” (45) published most of the articles in the yoga education field, followed by “Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine” (33.95), “Journal of American College Health” (32.86), and “Mindfulness Journal” (22.18). The FASEB Journal, published by the “Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology,” has the highest impact factor (4.966), compared to other journals.
Table 4: Top 10 journals that published yoga education research during 1992-2021

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Figure 11: List of top 10 journals (%) contributing in yoga education research

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Highly cited articles

[Table 5] shows the top 10 cited articles on yoga education from 1992 to 2021. The citations in this list range from 275 to 1553. The article which received the highest citations (30.37%) was “Interventions found to help executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old,” authored by Diamond et al. and published in 2011 in Science Journal. The article which received the second highest citations (17.72%) was “Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students,” authored by Shapiro et al. and published in 1998 in the Journal of Behavioral Medicine. The article which ranked third in the number of citations (8.31%) was “Mindfulness-based approaches with children and adolescents: a preliminary review of current research in an emergent field,” authored by Burke et al. and published in 2009 in the Journal of Child and Family Studies [Figure 12].
Table 5: Top 10 cited articles on yoga education during 1992-2021

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Figure 12: List of top 10 cited articles in yoga education research

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International collaboration

International collaboration is shown in the domains of countries, journals, and authors. The size of the circle in [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15] signifies a high number of publications, the colors indicate a cluster of collaboration, the lines indicate linkages among items, the distance between items demonstrates their relatedness, and the thickness of the lines denotes the strength of the collaboration. The bibliographic coupling of countries with more than 5 documents and 1 citation in the database was investigated for their relatedness of shared references [Figure 13]. A total of 10 clusters were identified with 29 items, whereas cluster number 1 has the maximum number of countries with a total of 7 members, i.e., India, Malaysia, Nepal, Norway, Poland, South Korea, and the United States. Cluster numbers 2 and 3 have four members, cluster number 4 have three members, cluster numbers 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 have two clusters, and cluster number 10 has included only one member, i.e., Canada. As per link strength is concerned, it is maximum in the United States (47,347), followed by the United Kingdom (11,126) and India (9678), respectively.
Figure 13: Network visualization collaboration of worldwide countries in the field of yoga education

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Figure 14: Network visualization collaboration of active journals in the field of yoga education

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Figure 15: Network visualization collaboration of productive authors in the field of yoga education

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We looked into the relatedness of shared references among organizations with more than six documents and 100 citations in the database [Figure 14]. Asan Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University, Monash University, University of Melbourne, and the University of Utah make up the majority of the organizations in cluster number 1, which has a total of 13 members. Cluster numbers 2, 3, and 4 have eleven, six, and five items, respectively. Harvard University has the highest link strength (8485), followed by Brigham and Women's Hospital (7541) and Pennsylvania State University (4873).

Bibliographic coupling of organizations with more than 5 documents and 1 citation in the database was investigated for their relatedness of shared references [Figure 15]. Six clusters bringing the total of 25 items were found; cluster number 1 contains the most authors with a total of eight members, followed by clusters 2, 3, 4, and 5, each of which contains four members, and cluster number 6, which only contains Yoo Yang Gyeong, which has one member. Khalsa, Satbir S. (4915); Butzer, Bethny (4595); and Mendelson, Tamar (3001) are the top three in terms of link strength, respectively.


  Discussion Top


According to a study, yoga plays a vital role as a preventive and supplementary exercise in schools.[15],[16] Practicing yoga appears to be associated with better child and adolescent performance in school-based interventions.[16],[17],[18],[19] In a study, students' stress levels were found to be reduced after completing a 21-day yoga, pranayama, and meditation program.[20] Another study showed a significant enhancement in the physical fitness, cognitive performance, emotional wellness, and personality characteristics of school students by an effective short-duration integrated classroom yoga module.[21] The use of bibliometric methods and techniques to analyze the research contributions of certain countries and institutions should be done regularly.[22] This study is performed based on the fact that there has been a lack of research in the field of yoga and education, making this current work novel in that perspective.

Bibliometric coupling and network visualization were used in the current study to show collaborative indices of global scientific research on yoga and education, as well as the ongoing increase of publications on this subject, from 1992 to 2021. The global publication shares 1929 studies from 64 nations, the majority of which are from the United States and India. In the years 2002–2011 (308) and 2012–2021 (1565), the growth rate of global publications was determined to be at an all-time high. In comparison to the years 1992–2001, the growth rate of global publications is ten times higher in 2012–2021. According to the study by Muthappan,[23] after the year 2000, the number of publications increased tenfold. This shows that the field of yoga is growing rapidly all over the world. Yoga education has become a research continuum in the last 30 years. Continuity was established after that, although limited research was published. We observed that the number of research articles stayed at only 1 or 2 until 1992 when papers began to be published regularly, and the number of papers published on this subject increased.

When we talk about global yoga involvement, it is observed that several studies have shown an increasing interest in yoga's involvement in diverse fields at the global level. According to Ramamoorthi,[24] the global expansion of this research has expanded due to the rise in global yoga involvement as well as the number of yoga practitioners and yoga schools in western nations. Similarly, as per the study of Muthappan, the “International Journal of Yoga,” published by S-VYASA University in India, has published the majority of articles in the field of yoga research in the last few years.[23] As per our findings, the journal “Mindfulness,” published by “Springer,” is at an all-time high in publishing research articles and in citations also, which shows how yoga is rising in popularity all over the world.

From 1992 to 2021, a total of 64 countries published research articles in the field of yoga education. The United States (553) is the most productive country in publishing research papers as well as citations, followed by India (145). Wieland and Poornima stated that the USA has the most publications in yoga research.[2],[25] Among 102 organizations, S-VYASA in India is the most productive organization in the field of yoga education during the period 19922021. With a total of 5456 co-authors, Shirley Telles from Patanjali Research Foundation, India, is the most productive author in yoga education research.[25]

In a total of 1077 journals, the article which received the highest citations (30.37%) was “Interventions found to help executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old,” authored by Diamond et al. and published in 2011 in Science Journal. As far as the link strength is concerned, the maximum coupling of countries, organizations, and authors is found in the United States (47,347), Harvard University (8485), and Khalsa, Satbir S. (4915), respectively. Several research studies investigating the use of yoga techniques in various domains have yielded comparable results.[24],[26]


  Conclusion Top


Yoga combines the mind, body, and breath to create harmonious relationships inside us. It may be an excellent addition to the school curriculum since it can help youngsters keep their brains quiet and grow holistically. According to the literature review, the number of publications in the fields of “Yoga” and “Student” health has expanded substantially in recent years. This study used numerical data to support and encourage other researchers to focus on yoga intervention in educational institutions. The different bibliometric indicators deliver significant data to evaluate research output productivity and quality. The current study shows that the United States and India contributed most of the scholarly publications. Furthermore, a highly promising author from India has authored most research articles in the sector. S-VYASA, an Indian organization, and “Mindfulness” as a journal have published the most scholarly articles. These bibliometric indicators deliver significant data to evaluate research output productivity and quality. The current study also provides a comprehensive overview of publishing trends as well as the reusability of previously published research. The findings of the study may assist the researchers in determining the exact capacity of various contributors in the concerned sector, therefore providing a platform for future research, that can serve the well-being.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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