|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 76-83
History, philosophy/concept, techniques of yoga and its effects on various systems of the body
A Mooventhan1, L Nivethitha2
1 Department of Research and Development, Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Naturopathy, Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||24-Jun-2020|
|Date of Decision||19-Oct-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||20-Oct-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||23-Dec-2020|
Department of Research and Development, Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College, Arumbakkam, Chennai - 600 106, Tamil Nadu
Yoga is the science of right living and can be incorporated into daily life. It is known to originate in India and practiced to attain samathi in the ancient days and now being used to promote health and wellbeing. Although currently Yoga is being practiced for the promotion of health and prevention of various diseases by the people, the information deals with its origin, evolution, philosophy/concepts, and types/techniques are less known. Previous reviews deal mainly with Yoga and its effects separately. Hence, this particular review provides a summary of the information related to history, philosophy/concepts, types/techniques and physiological/therapeutic effects in various systems of the body with possible side effects of Yoga based on the available traditional and scientific literature. This literature suggests that the ancient Indian science (i.e., yoga) has its own philosophy/concepts, different techniques that spread almost worldwide and the scientific evidence for its health benefits in various systems is increasing and encouraging its use in the system of medicine.
Keywords: Health, history, philosophy, yoga
|How to cite this article:|
Mooventhan A, Nivethitha L. History, philosophy/concept, techniques of yoga and its effects on various systems of the body. Yoga Mimamsa 2020;52:76-83
|How to cite this URL:|
Mooventhan A, Nivethitha L. History, philosophy/concept, techniques of yoga and its effects on various systems of the body. Yoga Mimamsa [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jun 20];52:76-83. Available from: https://www.ym-kdham.in/text.asp?2020/52/2/76/304612
| Introduction|| |
Yoga is the science of right living and can be incorporated into daily life. It works on all aspects such as physical, vital, mental, emotional, psychic, and spiritual. The word Yoga is derived from the Sanskrit word “yuj,” which means “to join” or “to unite” (i.e., union of the individual consciousness with the universal consciousness.). It consists of shatkarma, asana, pranayama, mudra, bandha, meditation, etc., (Saraswati, 2008) Yoga is an ancient Indian science which is known to improve health and wellbeing. Although currently Yoga is being practiced for the promotion of heath and prevention of various diseases by the people, the information deals with its origin, evolution, philosophy/concepts, and types/techniques are lacking. Previous reviews deal mainly with Yoga and its effects separately. Hence, this particular review provides a summary of the information related to history, philosophy/concepts, types/techniques, and physiological/therapeutic effects in various systems of the body with possible side effects of Yoga based on the available traditional and scientific literature.
| History of Yoga|| |
Yoga developed as a part of tantric civilization that existed in India and all parts of the world more than 10,000-year ago. In archaeological excavations made in the Indus Valley at Harappa and Mohenjodaro, many statues have been found depicting deities resembling Lord Shiva and Shakti practicing various asanas and meditation. According to mythical tradition, Shiva is said to be the founder of Yoga and Parvati, his first disciple.
The first books to refer to Yoga were the ancient Tantras and later the Vedas (Saraswati, 2008). Rigveda, mentions about yogic meditation by the wise, while Yajurveda exhorts us to practice Yoga for enhancing mental health, physical strength, and prosperity (Sengupta, 2012). However, Yoga began to take a more definable shape in Upanishads (Saraswati, 2008). In addition, Yoga related terms such as pranayama and samadhi occur repeatedly in Bhagavad Gita (Sengupta, 2012).
Sage Patanjali's treatise on Raja Yoga, the Yoga Sutras codified the first definitive, unified and comprehensive system of Yoga. Often called the “eight-fold path,” it is comprised of yama (self-restraints), niyama (self-observances), asana (postures), pranayama (breathing techniques), pratyahara (disassociation of consciousness from the outside environment), dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi (identification with pure consciousness) (Saraswati, 2008). Ancient Indian rishis understood that performing Raja Yoga always needs a healthy body “Sharirmadyam, khalu dharma sadhanam” (Sengupta, 2012). Hence, Gorakhnath wrote books on “Hatha Yoga”(Saraswati, 2008)which includes asana, mudra, pranayama, etc. According to “Gharanda samhita” there were 84-lakh asanas from which 16,000 were best and only about 300 are popular.
Yoga, as practiced and taught in India, entered the Western world in the 19th century with the translation of basic yogic texts. In 20th century numerous versions of Yoga were developed, taught and numerous books aided the growth of the Yoga practicing community in the USA (Sengupta, 2012). Kuvalayanada of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavla made the first serious attempt at scientific exploration of Yoga, way back in 1924. His work stimulated both fundamental and applied research in the scientific and medical fraternities. Since then considerably research work has been done in India and abroad in relation to Yoga (Rajapurkar, 1990). The prevalence of Yoga research in western healthcare is increasing. The marked increase in research indicates the need for a more systematic analysis of the literature in terms of quality and results (McCall, 2014).
In the 1950s and 1960s, several important books were published on yogic techniques and then in the 1970s Yoga rapidly expanded, with the founding of numerous Yoga centers and professional associations (Sengupta, 2012). In the past two decades, interest in Yoga has increased significantly, and it is widely available in many community centers, fitness clubs, Yoga studios, and worksite settings. In 2012, it was estimated that 20 million US adults (or 9% of the population) were practicing Yoga, mainly to improve their health and fitness.
According to National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health Yoga is safe and effective in healthy people when practiced appropriately under the guidance of a well-trained instructor. In the UK, the National Health Service promotes Yoga as a safe and effective method to increase physical activity in both healthy persons and those with a range of health conditions (Bartlett, Moonaz, Mill, Bernatsky & Bingham, 2013). In the 21st century, a spiritual heritage is being reclaimed of which Yoga is very much a part (Saraswati, 2008).
| Goal of Yoga|| |
According to Patanjali Yoga sutras, the goal of Yoga is Samadhi which can be defined as the pointless point of consciousness beyond which nothing else remains. It is the deepest level of consciousness where even the sense of individuality does not remain (Chowdhary & Gopinath, 2013).
| Philosophy/Concept of Yoga|| |
Philosophy means “Love of Wisdom” and wisdom consists in knowing how to live. In other words it is a study of realities and general principles or a system of theories on nature, things or conduct (Desai, 1987). In India, traditionally, Yoga is known as one of the 6-systems of Philosophy called “Sat Darùanas” such as Nyaya, Vaisesika, Sankhya, Yoga, Pürva Mimamsa, and Uttara Mimamsa (Nagendra, 2008).
To know the concept of Yoga clearly, Patanjali's philosophy is the most authentic one because of its systematic methodology. According to Patanjali, Yoga is the inhibition of modifications of the mind. The whole subject of Yoga deals with the realization of one-self through the Niras or Nirodh of the Chitta, i.e., complete cessation of various disturbances and turbulences (disorders) of the mind and consciousness. It is, therefore, a subjective type of an experimental and experiential science, art, and philosophy (Desai, 1987).
The purpose of all Yoga is to realize, be in tune, and ultimately merge with Reality; call it Perfection, Pure Consciousness, Parmatman, Nirvaïa as Buddha called it, Kaivalya as Patanjali presented, Mokúa as Uttara Mèmamsa designates, or Reality which all scientists aim at, in all their research (Nagendra, 2008).
| Psychological Concepts in Patanjali Yoga Sutras|| |
Many ideas of Patanjali Yoga sutras are parallel to and resemble the concepts of psychology. The mind or chitta as described in Patanjali Yoga sutras is said to be comprised of the conscious, subconscious and the unconscious.
Yoga sutras explain the yogic theory of perception. According to this, even though the object is one, it is perceived differently at different times by different people depending on the difference in mental conditions. This difference in perception makes the object capable of inducing pleasure and pain and suffering. Once the perception is cleansed of one's mental modifications, external events fail to evoke pain and suffering in the individual. This is similar to the principle of cognitive behavior therapy.
It holds the concept of conscious and subconscious memory. Conscious memory involves the recollection of things already experienced. This is different from subconscious memory that refers to the memory that one does not consciously remember.
It also discusses pain and its cause. They explain that pain is not in the present but is rooted in the past. Klesha is the agony that is present in our very being. According to them, everyone feels pain but everyone is not aware of it. Pain is thought to be at the bottom of everything and Patanjali also talks of three different types of pain.
- The first pain is change, life changes to death
- The second is acute anxiety, achievement, success, and love give rise to anxiety at some time or the other
- The third pain is habit; we become used to things and are then afraid of losing them (Chowdhary & Gopinath, 2013).
| Types and Techniques of Yoga|| |
There are many branches of Yoga such as raja, hatha, karma, bhakti, jnana, mantra, kundalini, laya etc. Each individual needs to find those Yogas most suited to his/her particular personality and need (Saraswati, 2008).
It also known as Patanjali Yoga, classical Yoga etc. The multi-component process of Raja-Yoga is aimed toward training the mind to be effortlessly quiet, focused, and self-aware.
Components of Raja-Yoga
- Yama (Moral observances): Yama refers to ethics regarding the outside world, and therefore is particularly important in social contexts. It consists of, Ahimsa (nonviolence), Satya (Truthfulness), Asteya (nonstealing, not taking from others), Brahmacharya (Moderation of senses), Aparigraha (nongreedy, not keeping from others)
- Niyamas (self-disciplines): Niyama refers to ethics regarding the inner world. It comprises purification or cleanliness and contentment. It consists of, Saucha (cleanliness and purification), Santosha (contentment), Tapas (literally “heat”-austerity), Svadhyaya (self-reflection and study), Isvara pranidhana (surrender)
- Asana (postures): Asana is defined as a steady and comfort table posture
- Pranayama (breath regulation): Pranayamas are a series of specific techniques to control the breath in order to allow the breath and life force to flow freely
- Pratyahara (sensory withdrawal): Pratyahara involves techniques to minimize external distractions from sensory information, allowing attention to turn inward
- Dharana (concentration, single-pointed focused attention): Focus the mind on a single object of meditation such as breath, a point on the body or an external object (e.g., candle flame)
- Dhyana (meditation, unbroken flow of attention): Occasionally the mind ceases wandering, and meditation shifts into what Raja yogis consider more advanced meditative practices, dhyana. With time and practice, wandering decreases, as does effort to maintain focus, and an unbroken chain of awareness rests on the object of meditation
- Samadhi (integration, merging of subject and object, self-realization): This leads to the final meditative limb, Samadhi, which represents transcendent states of conscious awareness and absorption associated with an on dual subject/object distinction.
It also called as post-classical Yoga which elaborated upon postures and breathing techniques largely to prepare for meditation (Gard, Noggle, Park, Vago, & Wilson, 2014). In the last half of the 20th century, hatha Yoga had become the most well-known and widely practiced in the world (Saraswati, 2008).
The path of work, promotes pleasure in labor without indulging in thoughts of success or failure. A free mind allows the task to be done in a skillful manner.
The path of worship is a systematic method of engaging the mind in the practice of divine love. This attitude of love softens our emotions and tranquilizes our mind.
The path of philosophy is a systematic way of enlightening the mind about the realities of life by contemplation. This will strip off the garb of Avidya (ignorance) from our mind as it goes to its natural state of rest (Mishra, Singh, Bunch, & Zhang, 2012).
In mantra Yoga, a particular mantra will be chanted to reach the ultimate goal of Yoga.
The Kundalini Yoga deals with the awakening of the Kundalini shakthi/energy from mooladhara chakra to the shahasrara chakra.
By singing the rituals songs of the gods the sadhakas will attain the ultimate goal of Yoga.
Today, Yoga is very popular in the West amongst the general public. Numerous modern schools or styles of Yoga such as Iyengar, Ashtanga, ViniYoga, Bikram, Sivananda, Kripalu, and Integral exist and most of which are forms of traditional Hatha Yoga (Büssing, Khalsa, Michalsen, Sherman, & Telles, 2012).
| Physiological/Therapeutic Effects of Yoga on Various Systems|| |
In a study on healthy males significant reduction in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), load in heart, myocardial oxygen consumption, low frequency spectrum of HR variability (HRV) spectrum, catecholamines, total cholesterol, cortisol, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone; and increase in high frequency, total power, and time domain parameters of HRV, skin conductance, serotonin, dopamine, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were noted following yogic practice (Pal, Singh, Chatterjee, & Saha, 2014).
Yoga was shown to decrease BP in pre-hypertensive(Sieverdes et al., 2014) and mild hypertensive (Hagins, Rundle, Consedine, & Khalsa, 2014); BP, HR, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (Pal, Srivastava, Narain, Agrawal, & Rani, 2013), body fat%, total-cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein in the coronary artery (Pal et al., 2011). There are the pieces of evidence to incorporate Yoga into standardized cardiac rehabilitation programs as an adjunct to improve the management of psychosocial symptoms associated with cardiovascular events in addition to improving patients' cognitive and cardiovascular functions (Yeung et al., 2014).
Regular Yoga practice increases vital capacity, timed vital capacity, maximum voluntary ventilation, breath-holding time, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (Vedala, Mane, & Paul, 2014). A combination of Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting alone were shown to improve pulmonary function in healthy individuals (Mooventhan & Khode, 2014).
Yoga significantly improved peak expiratory flow rate, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid expiratory flow in 0.25-0.75 seconds and FEV1/FVC% ratio in bronchial asthma (Sodhi, Singh, & Dandona, 2009); and level of infection, radiographic picture, FVC, weight gain and reduced symptoms in pulmonary tuberculosis (Visweswaraiah & Telles, 2004). According to a meta-analysis, Yoga improves lung function and exercise capacity and could be used as an adjunct pulmonary rehabilitation program in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (Liu, Pan, Hu, Dong, Yan, & Dong, 2014).
Yogic breathing exercises were shown to improve diffusion capacity in COPD (Soni, Munish, Singh, & Singh, 2012); weight gain, BMI, symptom scores, pulmonary function, and health-related quality of life (QOL) with conversion of positive to negative sputum fluorescence microscopic examination for acid-fast bacilli in new sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis (Mooventhan, Khode, & Nivethitha, 2014).
Children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy die prematurely because of respiratory failure whereas, Yoga breathing exercises were shown to improve pulmonary function in these patients (Rodrigues, Carvalho, Santaella, Lorenzi-Filho, & Marie, 2014). Pranayama and meditation was reported to improve pulmonary functions in hypothyroid along with conventional treatment (Swami, Singh, Singh, & Gupta, 2010).
Yogic relaxation, pranayama, and meditation were shown to improve quality of sleep (QOS) in GuillainBarré syndrome (Sendhilkumar, Gupta, Nagarathna, & Taly, 2013).Yoga practices were reported to improve performance on the executive function measures of working memory capacity and efficiency of mental set shifting and flexibility in older adults (Gothe, Kramer, & McAuley, 2014); alleviate physical pain and improve QOL in multiple sclerosis (Doulatabad, Nooreyan, Doulatabad, & Noubandegani, 2012);and improve physical functioning (i.e., pain, neck range of motion, hip passive range of motion, upper extremity strength, and the 6-min walk scores) after stroke (Schmid, Miller, Van Puymbroeck, & DeBaun-Sprague, 2014).
A study on integrating Yoga with physical therapy exercise, showed 16 points and 11 points improvement in Parkinson's disease questionnaire and in high-level mobility assessment tool respectively. There were also improvements in muscle length (lower extremity muscles), muscle strength (upper and lower extremity), and dynamic balance (Moriello, Denio, Abraham, DeFrancesco, & Townsley, 2013).
8-week Sit “N” Fit Chair Yoga shown to improve Six-Minute Walk Test, Gait Speed Test, and Berg Balance Scale scores in moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (McCaffrey, Park, Newman, & Hagen, 2014). Yoga-meditation program was reported to be feasible and effective for dementia patient family caregivers (Waelde, Thompson, & Gallagher-Thompson, 2004).According to a review, Yoga was also used as an adjunctive treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome, epilepsy, poststroke paresis, and neuropathy of type-2 diabetes (Mishra et al., 2012).
Adding Yoga intervention to conventional treatment was reported to be feasible and beneficial even in the early and acute stage of psychosis (Manjunath, Varambally, Thirthalli, Basavaraddi, & Gangadhar, 2013). It was shown to be efficacious in improving post-traumatic stress disorder (Mitchell et al., 2014); endogenous plasma oxytocin levels (Jayaram et al., 2013), psychopathology and QOL of patients with schizophrenia (Visceglia & Lewis, 2011); subjective wellbeing, mental health, and executive functioning within prison populations (Bilderbeck, Farias, Brazil, Jakobowitz, & Wikholm, 2013);mood status and QOL for women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence (Zhuang, An, & Zhao, 2013); smoking cessation among women (Bock et al., 2012); and decrease depression in women with major depression with a unique trend in decreased ruminations (Kinser, Bourguignon, Whaley, Hauenstein, & Taylor, 2013).
In a study, Yoga subjects were reported greater improvement in mood and greater decreases in anxiety than the walking group. The Yoga group had positive correlations between changes in mood scales and changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (Streeter et al., 2010). A workplace Yoga was reported to reduce perceived stress and improve psychological well being (Hartfiel et al., 2012). In army personnel naive to Yoga, Yoga-based intervention or listening to meditation music could reduce anxiety while increasing performance on an attention task (Telles, Bhardwaj, Kumar, Kumar, & Balkrishna, 2012).
According to a study, Yoga was as effective as Tai-chi and standard balance training for improving postural stability in elders with a history of falling (Ni et al., 2014). Yoga was reported to be effective in reducing neck pain intensity and disability and improving health-related QOL, functional status of neck muscles in chronic neck pain (Cramer et al., 2013);reducing pain, anxiety, and depression, and improving spinal mobility in chronic low back pain more effectively than physiotherapy (Tekur, Nagarathna, Chametcha, Hankey, & Nagendra, 2012). Moreover, it was safe and beneficial for patients with nonspecific low back pain or sciatica, accompanied by disc extrusions and bulges (Monro, Bhardwaj, Gupta, Telles, Allen, & Little, 2015).
Workplace Yoga was shown to reduce back pain and improve psychological well-being (Hartfiel et al., 2012). In knee osteoarthritis, Yoga was shown to be better than therapeutic exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in improving walking pain, range of knee flexion, walking time, tenderness, swelling, crepitus, and knee disability (Ebnezar, Nagarathna, Yogitha, & Nagendra, 2012).Add-on yogic prana energization technique was reported to accelerate fracture healing (Oswal, Nagarathna, Ebnezar, & Nagendra, 2011).
Iyengar Yoga was shown to be a feasible and safe adjunctive treatment for irritable bowel syndrome. It significantly improved symptoms, global improvement, disability, psychological distress, QOS, and fatigue in young adults (Evans et al., 2014).
| Obstetrics and Gynaecology|| |
Yoga was shown to be effective in reducing stress and anxiety in mastectomized women (Bernardi, Amorim, Zandonade, Santaella, & Barbosa, 2013); improving urinary incontinence in women (Huang, Jenny, Chesney, Schembri, & Subak, 2014); lumbopelvic pain intensity (Martins & Pinto-e-Silva, 2014),anxiety, depression, pregnancy-related uncomfortable experiences in pregnant women (Satyapriya, Nagarathna, Padmalatha, & Nagendra, 2013);and hypertensive related complications of pregnancy with improvement in fetal outcomes in high-risk pregnant women (Rakhshani, Nagarathna, Mhaskar, Mhaskar, Thomas, & Gunasheela, 2012).
Yoga Nidra practice was reported to be helpful in patients with hormone imbalances, such as dysmenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, and hypomenorrhea (Rani et al., 2013). In patients with menstrual disturbances, significant improvements in BP, postural hypotension, sustained handgrip, and HR expiration inspiration ratio were reported after Yoga (Monika, Singh, Ghildiyal, Kala, & Srivastava, 2012).
Yoga was found to be more effective than physical exercises in reducing anti-Müllerian hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone, Modified Ferriman and Gallway score for hirsutism; and improving menstrual frequency (Nidhi, Padmalatha, Nagarathna, & Amritanshu, 2013), glucose, lipid, and insulin values, including insulin resistance values in polycystic ovarian syndrome (Nidhi, Padmalatha, Nagarathna, & Ram, 2012). Three Yoga poses (Cobra, Cat, and Fish Poses) were shown to reduce the severity and duration of primary dysmenorrheal (Rakhshaee, 2011). In obese post-menopausal Korean women, Yoga was reported to improve adiponectin, serum lipids, and metabolic syndrome risk factors which will be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease (Lee, Kim, & Kim, 2012).
Yoga was shown to reduce inflammation-related gene expression in breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue (Bower et al., 2014); depression in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment (Rao et al., 2015);improve QOS and reducing sleep medication use among cancer survivors (Mustian et al., 2013);and improve QOL and physiological changes associated with breast cancer radiotherapy (Chandwani et al., 2014).
Yoga was reported to be feasible in prostate cancer patients during radiotherapy (Ben-Josef, Wileyto, Chen, & Vapiwala, 2016); safe, feasible, acceptable, and subjectively useful for lung cancer patients and their caregivers (Milbury et al., 2015).Laughter Yoga was shown to decrease stress in cancer sufferers before chemotherapy (Farifteh, Mohammadi-Aria, Kiamanesh, & Mofid, 2014) and Yogic breathing was reported to be feasible and a dose-response relationship was shown between pranayama use and improvements in chemotherapy-associated symptoms and QOL in patients receiving chemotherapy (Dhruva et al., 2012).
Yoga was shown to improve anthropometric variables and serum lipid profile in overweight and obese persons (Telles, Sharma, Yadav, Singh, & Balkrishna, 2014); control oxidative stress in pre-diabetes (Hegde, Adhikari, Shetty, Manjrekar, & D'Souza, 2013);reduce weight, waist circumference, BMI, BP, total-cholesterol, anxiety, depression, negative affect and perceived stress in subject with elevated fasting blood glucose (McDermott et al., 2014); and sexual dysfunction in women with metabolic syndrome as well as for metabolic risk factors (Kim, Ryu, Kim, & Song, 2013).
At 3 months post breast cancer treatment, increasing Yoga practice was reported as associated with a decrease in IL-6 and IL-1β production but not in TNF-α production (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2014). A brief daily yogic meditation was shown to reverse the pattern of increased NF-κB-related transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased IRF-1 related transcription of innate antiviral response genes previously observed in healthy individuals confronting a significant life stressor (Black et al., 2013).
| Barriers of Yoga|| |
Irregularity in lifestyle, family commitments, occupational commitments, dullness, excessive talking, strictly adhering to rules, laziness, physical, and mental overexertion, fickleness and wandering of mind, unsteadiness of mind, procrastination, and oversleeping are considered as significant barriers to moderate nature. Modern lifestyle is the major challenge for Yoga practitioners to adhere to the regular practice of Yoga (Dayananda, Ilavarasu, Rajesh, & Babu, 2014).
| Adverse Effects of Yoga|| |
A large-scale survey demonstrated that approximately 30% of Yoga class attendees had experienced some type of adverse event. Although most adverse events were mild, some individuals experienced severe events, which caused them to discontinue the class (Matsushita & Oka, 2015). Followed a Yoga exercise called “pranayama,” which had involved a vigorous Valsalva maneuver, a 40-year-old man developed swelling of the face and neck associated with respiratory distress of sudden onset (Kashyap, Anand, & Kashyap, 2007). A case study reported the development of basilar artery occlusion 2 months after adopting unusual neck postures during Yoga practice in a female (Fong, Cheung, Yu, Lai, & Chang, 1993).Although many forms of Yoga practice are safe, some are strenuous and may not be appropriate for everyone. In particular, elderly patients or those with mobility problems (Sengupta, 2012). Injury due to Yoga is an infrequent barrier to continued practice and severe injury due to Yoga is rare (Holton & Barry 2014). Yoga, although not entirely risk-free, can be considered a safe form of exercise if practiced under the guidance and supervision of a qualified trainer (Sengupta, 2012).
| Conclusion|| |
The ancient Indian science has its own philosophy/concepts, different techniques that spread almost worldwide. The pieces of scientific evidences for its health benefits on various systems are increasing and encouraging its use in the health-care system.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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