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REVIEW ARTICLE
Role of yoga in prevention and management of lifestyle disorders
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
July-December 2017, 49(2):42-47
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_14_17  
The modern world is facing a pandemic of lifestyle disorders that require changes to be made consciously by individuals themselves, and as yoga is the best lifestyle ever designed, it has potential in the prevention, management, and rehabilitation of prevalent lifestyle disorders. Yogic lifestyle, yogic diet, yogic attitudes, and various yogic practices help humans to strengthen themselves and develop positive health, thus enabling them to withstand stress better. This yogic “health insurance” is achieved by normalizing the perception of stress, optimizing the reaction to it, and by releasing the pent-up stress effectively through various yogic practices. This review paper summarizes important findings of a recent research on yoga in lifestyle disorders including a series of studies at Puducherry, India, documenting positive effects. The majority of studies on yoga and cardiovascular and metabolic health show positive trends and this augurs well for the future of health care in general and the use of yoga as a part of integrative health care in particular. Major benefits of yoga may occur due to its lifestyle components (healthy diet, activity, relaxation, and positive attitude) as well as psychosomatic harmonizing effects of pranayama and yogic relaxation. Yoga places a great importance on a proper and healthy lifestyle whose main components are achar (healthy activities), vichar (healthy relationships), vichar (healthy thoughts), ahar (healthy food), and vihar (healthy recreation). The basic yogic principles useful in the management of lifestyle disorders are discussed including psychological reconditioning and development of appropriate attitudes; stress management normalization of metabolism; and relaxation, visualization, and contemplative practices.
  24,523 20 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Exploring the significance of "Mudra and Bandha" in pelvic floor dysfunction
Mrithunjay Rathore, Sarita Agrawal, Prasanta Kumar Nayak, Manisha Sinha, Dhanyesh Kumar Sharma, Subarna Mitra
July-December 2014, 46(3):59-63
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.159737  
Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is commonly associated with the weakness of pelvic floor muscles and the supporting connective tissue structures, which may lead to prolapse of the pelvic organs. There are various researches which have shown the significance of pelvic floor exercise (PFE) on the PFD. The last few years have seen a growing interest in the field of yoga. "Mudra" and "Bandha" are reported as pelvic floor yogic exercises (PFYEs) in the ancient Indian texts. These yogic exercises involve the coordination of breath, maintain the structural integrity of the pelvic floor, and thereby prevent PFD. It is recognized that all the female patients of PFD can be benefited from education on PFYE. So, in this article, we have tried to highlight the significance of PFYE in the preventive and therapeutic aspects of PFD.
  11,228 25 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Nyasa – A scientific study
Sarangapani Bashyam, TM Srinivasan, Hongasandra Ramarao Nagendra
January-December 2015, 47(1):15-21
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.195456  
Background: Divine worship follows Veda or agama sastras (liturgy) in Hindu lore. Nyasa is a mandatory procedure before every mantra japa (repetition of a mantra) as per agama sastra. In nyasa, the individual places parts of the mantra in designated parts of the body in a sequential order before performing japa. Aims: The aims of this study are to understand the concept and the diverse practices and to gather scientific evidence of the benefits to the body-mind-intellect of an individual doing mantra japa with nyasa. Method: Literature available on the subject was studied. Controlled experiments on a limited scale were performed using Electrophotonic Imaging (EPI) device with participants from a Vedic institution, performing daily Gayatri japa (recitation of the most popular mantra) with self as control and cross-over design. EPI was used to measure three parameters, namely integral entropy, integral area, and fractality. Results: Qualitative outcome of the study is described. Marginal improvements in integral entropy (decrease) and integral area (increase) were observed. Both signify positive outcome due to nyasa compared with relaxation by the control group. There was no noticeable difference in fractality between the two groups. Conclusion: Because decrease in entropy and increase in integral area are associated with better health, the study can be extended to larger and heterogeneous samples and over longer periods of nyasa practice for more conclusive results.
  11,165 19 -
CASE REPORTS
Effect of a yoga module on an enlarged prostate in elderly patients: Two case studies
Satish D Pathak, Pratibha Hemant Rajbhoj, Ranjeet S Bhogal
January-June 2017, 49(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_7_16  
Prostate gland and its enlargement is a common problem in aging males. Surgery may not be advisable in all cases of enlarged prostate, as the aging people often have other problems such as asthma, diabetes, and blood pressure (BP) and may not often be physically fit to undergo a safe surgery. Case studies were undertaken on two male patients of age 62 and 79 years, respectively. The parameters studied were ultrasonography, pre- and post-void urine volume, and serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) along with other physiological and biochemical parameters of BP and diabetes. The patients were tested after 7 days and also after 14 days of yoga practice. In case 1, it was seen that the prostate size, on sonography readings, was reduced from 144 to 37 cc by just 1 month of yoga practice. Prevoid urine volume was 230 ml and postvoid was 180 ml, and after 1 month of yoga practice, it was 694 ml and 19 ml, respectively. Serum PSA initially was 25.24 ng/ml, while at the time of posttesting, it was 0.82 ng/ml. In case 2, the postvoid urine volume was 50 ml initially. On the 14th day of yoga practice, it was nil. Serum PSA was 128.5 ng/ml at the time of pretesting, while on the 14th day, it was 16.35 ng/ml. The prostate size was 91 cc on sonography examination at preyoga testing, while on 14th day of yoga practice, it was 23.6 cc. The yoga module, used in this study, is recommended to be employed to help patients of enlarged prostate.
  7,850 16 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Diverse dimensions of Yoga
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
January-June 2014, 46(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.137846  
Yoga is a word very commonly used in the world today and carries various connotations depending on its usage. It has been defined in various manners as an art and science, as well as the process of conscious evolution. All human beings can gain a lot from the bountiful dimensions of Yoga, which enables them to manifest their inherent divinity, the universal potentiality that lies dormant unless channelized. "All souls are potentially divine," said Swami Vivekananda and, indeed, they are. This article aims to elucidate the diverse dimensions of Yoga that include the dimensions related to Indian culture as well as those associated with health, therapy, society, education, and research. Various physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual benefits attainable through Yoga are explained in detail, highlighting the multiple sub-dimensions of these major fields. Yoga, which emphasizes the universal, is a perfect foil to those human activities which glorify the personal. In short, it may be safely said that the practice of Yoga as a unified whole helps the individual shift from an "I"-centric approach to a "we"- centric approach. The beauty of Yoga is that these abstract principles become concrete by the daily practice of the techniques available in the integrated system. Once the "seed of Yoga" finds fertile soil, these concepts grow naturally, slowly but surely taking root in all aspects of life.
  6,991 39 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Personality correlates of mindfulness: A study in an Indian setting
Praseeda Menon, Suchitra Doddoli, Sukriti Singh, Ranjit S Bhogal
January-June 2014, 46(1):29-36
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.137844  
Background: Mindfulness has received consistent attention from researchers in the last few decades due to its positive effects on physical and mental health, psychological well-being, as well as several therapeutic outcomes. In an attempt to discern its dispositional source, researchers have also looked at its relation with personality traits. Aims: The current study aims to carry the above effort ahead by looking at the relation of mindfulness to the big-five personality traits in the Indian context in an exploratory way to give some amount of cross-cultural validity to established relations in the Western context. Methods: The current study adopted the method of correlational research to fulfill the above aim. Results: Results of the current investigation on 60 plus Yoga students supported earlier meta-analysis by revealing highly significant moderate correlations, negative of -0.45 with neuroticism and positive of 0.49 with conscientiousness after controlling for demographics. Mindfulness also showed a positive relation to extraversion (r = 0.29), to a lesser extent though. The study, very surprisingly, showed no gender difference in neuroticism in the current sample of Yoga students, thereby creating a deviation to a widely present gender difference. Conclusions: The current paper discusses the above results in detail, and draws the personality mini-profile of a mindful individual to be that of one who is emotionally stable and/or well-disciplined in his/her approach toward life although, studies with larger, representative and cross-cultural samples are needed to further validate this claim.
  5,653 23 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Possible effects of hot yoga: An objective approach
Suchitra Doddoli, Sanjay U Shete, Swapnil Patil, Gururaj Doddoli
January-June 2014, 46(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.137845  
Over the years, Yoga has not only contributed to holistic health and well-being but has also spread worldwide as an academic discipline. At the same time, there has been regular experimentation and adaptation in the field of yoga by people from various parts of the world since the time it gained wide popularity, some of them being quite scientific in their orientation. Among them, hot yoga is a new trend in Hatha yoga practice, which involves exposure to ambient temperature to promote the health benefits through acclimatization. However, to date, influence of hot yoga on various health-related parameters and its effect on thermoregulatory mechanism are still under controversy. This study attempted to explore the possible ill effects of hyperthermia-induced physical activity on various regulatory mechanisms of health, which may be directed toward impaired body homeostasis. This study suggests that hot yoga cannot regulate comprehensive health at cellular level and may deviate from the traditional concept of yoga.
  5,606 23 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A novel rejuvenation program for cancer patients at Kaivalyadhama, India
Lee Majewski, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
January-June 2014, 46(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.137843  
Background: The modern intensive treatment for cancer leaves the patients physically and mentally exhausted by the end of it. There is great potential for Yoga, the original mind-body medicine, in such a situation as it conjointly emphasizes body, mind, and spirit, which may be particularly useful for enhancing patients' social and spiritual well-being. Some studies have reported the effectiveness of Yoga, meditation, and mindfulness as a rehabilitative and palliative therapy in various types of cancer. Objectives: With the above background in mind, we created a 3-week residential program for cancer patients to empower them in their journey, "back to health." The curriculum was geared specifically for those who had undergone chemotherapy and/or radiation. Methods: The program utilized the sister life sciences of Yoga and Ayurveda with a healthy dose of self-education to assist patients in their recovery from the devastation of cancer and its modern treatment. The modes of reintegration used in this program were designed to specifically address the physical, mental, and psychic (spiritual) needs of the participants. The curriculum included various asanas, kriyas, pranayama, mudras, and bandha, as well as chanting. Ayurvedic treatment based on panchkarma science was designed and applied according to each patient's disposition. An educational component was included to inform patients of potential carcinogenic factors in their life and to change their mindset and attitudes from victimhood to self-empowerment. In order to scientifically validate the program, physiological, biochemical, psychological, and Ayurvedic assessment of tridoshas was carried out. Conclusion: Our special Cancer Rehabilitation Yoga program is expected to have several beneficial effects for those recovering from the aftermath of anti-cancer therapies even at 3-month follow-up. Subjective observations so far reveal that the program led to overall empowerment of the participants.
  4,366 46 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Manas - A practical facet of Āyurveda
Hetal Amin, Rohit Sharma
July-December 2014, 46(3):64-70
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.159738  
Manas (~mind) is considered as the factor responsible for yoking Ātmā (soul) with Śārïra (body) and Indriya (senses). The concept of Āyu (age) is based on the state of Manas, Manas, which is also referred to as Sattva. It is chiefly responsible for perceiving Sukha (pleasure), Dukha (pain), Hita (wholesome), Ahita (unwholesome), etc. in relation to life. Manas has got a close relationship with health also. This demonstrates the importance of Manas in calling a person Swastha (healthy). An accurate knowledge of Manas is necessary to understand the process of production of Jñāna (knowledge) as explained in Āyurveda. Caraka Sam.hitā, one of the authoritative ancient texts of Āyurveda, gives a precise description of Manas Siddhāñta (principles of the mind) including its normal and abnormal states, but all these descriptions are highly scattered. Seeds of the Āyurvedic concept of Manas are found in different texts, but Āyurveda considers it in an applied and practical way. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the applied aspect of Manas in accordance with Āyurveda.
  4,153 22 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of yogic intervention on Autism Spectrum Disorder
Manju Deorari, Ishwar Bhardwaj
July-December 2014, 46(3):81-84
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.159744  
Background: Autism is one of the most common developmental disorders. It is a lifelong brain disorder that is normally diagnosed in early childhood. Autism is a spectrum disorder varying in severity and impact from individual to individual. Aims: The main purpose of this study is to find the effect of yogic intervention on children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder. Settings and Design: Thirty children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder were selected from Abhiprerna Foundation, Haridwar for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 5 to 16 years. The design used for the study was pre-post design. Purposive sampling was used for collection of the sample. Methods: The current study was performed with parents/caregivers who gave information regarding the daily activities of the child; pre and post values for the study were assessed on the basis of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. yogic practices including OM Chanting, Asanas, and Pranayama were used as intervention for a period of 3 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired samples t-test was used for comparing the means of pre and post values. Results: Though there was statistically significant reduction in the symptoms of autism in children after a period of 3 months, yet the effect size was very small to draw an assertive conclusion. Conclusions: The results conclude that continuous practice of yoga may significantly improve the symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children. Such an effect also calls for a detailed study on their effectiveness in the long run.
  4,089 19 3
Psychophysiological analysis of Kriya Yoga as per Patanjala Yoga Sutra
Sarita Vivek Bapat
January-December 2016, 48(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198701  
Background: Kriya Yoga that includes Tapas,vadhyaya, and Ishwara pranidhana as given by Patanjala Yoga Sutra finds its mention twice in the text as Kriya Yoga and as Niyama. The double occurrence has significance. Aim: The aim of this work is to carry out an analysis of what Kriya Yoga is, what is the purpose of repeating three components of Kriya Yoga, i.e., Tapas,vadhyaya, and Ishwara pranidhana in Sadhana pada. Method: The three steps of Tapas,Svadhyaya, and Ishwara pranidhana were analyzed in detail. The important difference of this analysis from other commentators is to analyze the first two steps of Kriya Yoga from the psychophysiological point of view. Analysis: The Kriya Yoga brings psychophysiological changes leading to the total control of the body, i.e., internal functions of the body. It also leads to surrender to the internal supreme existence of one's own being. The process of Tapas, Svadhyaya, and Ishwara pranidhana, as per Kriya Yoga, converts a common person into a yogi. Conclusion: The process of Kriya Yoga facilitates the removal of resistance within i.e. preparing condition of chitta which is necessary for entering into Samadhi is fulfilled.
  4,078 18 -
A brief introduction of "Yogāsana - Jaina": An unpublished yoga manuscript
Bandita Satapathy, Gyan S Sahay
January-June 2014, 46(1):43-55
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.141413  
Background: Considering the need to unearth the knowledge of yoga hidden in various handwritten manuscripts, the Philosophico-Literary Research Department of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavala has undertaken a long-term project on unpublished manuscripts. Aims: The current research work aims to study an unpublished yoga manuscript, "Yogāsana-Jaina," by exploring the details in relation to the author as well as the content. Method: The method followed for the current study was descriptive. First, translation of the Ms. from Sanskrit to English, and then a critical analysis of the content were done. Results: The whole manuscript, Yogāsana-Jaina, is devoted to the description of āsana s related with Jaina tradition. It describes around 107 āsana s with illustration of each āsana . Out of 107 āsana s, some āsana s are variations of many popular yoga āsanas , some āsana s are presented with right and left variations, whereas some āsana s are presented in different variations as well as names. Conclusion: The current Ms. can serve to be of great interest to the yoga practitioners/scholars/researchers interested in the variations of āsana s according to tradition, religion, and/or culture.
  3,928 22 -
Beliefs of yoga practitioners about yoga as a science: A survey in Mumbai
Subodh Tiwari, Shirley Telles, Abhishek Goel, Anita Verma
January-June 2014, 46(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.140195  
Context: The ancient Indian science of yoga is both an experiential science as well as a set of practices which are very suitable to be evaluated using conventional research methods. Despite the rapidly growing scientific literature on the effects of yoga and its applications, there has been no survey carried out to determine whether yoga practitioners are themselves aware of this research. Aims: The current study aimed at conducting a survey to document the beliefs about yoga as a science among its practitioners. Methods: The current survey was conducted chiefly on graduate students of Mumbai University as well as some of the staff. The study surveyed 972 respondents (with an average age of 26 years and a male-female ratio of 54.8:45.2), out of which 54.7 percent practiced yoga. Results: Among the yoga practitioners, 66.1 percent were aware of scientific research on yoga and 57.6 percent associated yoga with scientific research. Interestingly, 60.4 percent of yoga users were keen to have online yoga courses. Among those who did not practice yoga (45.3 percent), 45.0 percent had no intention of starting to practice yoga. Conclusion: The current survey, which is the first documentation of its type in India, showed interesting trends in beliefs about yoga as a scientific discipline among a predominantly young, educated, and urban Indian sample.
  3,562 22 1
Differential impact of Shavasana and meditation on memory scores in healthy college students: A randomized controlled study
Ranjeet Singh Bhogal, Ghanshyam Singh Thakur, Sanjay Uddhav Shete
January-December 2016, 48(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.198705  
Background: Yogic relaxation techniques endow its practitioners with the relaxation of Citta (i.e., mind, intellect, and ego) and freedom from psycho-physiological fatigue. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to compare the differential impact of the guided instructions in Shavasana and meditation in supine posture on verbal, spatial, and associate memory scores. Research Design: This was a randomized controlled trial. Method: Randomly selected 45 healthy college students were equally divided into meditation group (n = 15), Shavasana group (n= 15), and control group (n = 15), with age range of 22–30 years. All individuals were assessed for total memory through Wechsler Memory Scale before and after the 30-day intervention of yoga, consisting of two types of relaxation techniques (Shavasana and meditation in supine posture). The sessions were of 30 min each for both the intervention groups for 6 days a week. Results: Results showed significant changes in memory scores among meditation and Shavasana groups as compared to the control group. Meditation group had shown a higher magnitude of change as compared to the other groups. Within-group comparison revealed significant changes in memory scores in both meditation (P < 0.001) as well as in Shavasana (P < 0.01) groups. Conclusion: This study has concluded that the guided relaxation techniques of yoga could bring a deeper relaxation at the psycho-physiological level which, in turn, could bring about a deeper impact at higher psychological levels resulting into significant improvement in verbal, spatial, and associate memory scores.
  3,428 18 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Yoga as a therapeutic tool in autism: A detailed review
Soccalingam Artchoudane, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, Meena Ramanathan, Artchoudane Mariangela
January-June 2019, 51(1):3-16
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_3_19  
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder affecting systems of the body and behavior. Its growth rate is approximately 3% in children. This review was undertaken to search and critically analyze the literature about musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and neurological function, and behavioral outcomes of yoga interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This systematic review has four-stage screening process and rigorous critical appraisal, which resulted in the inclusion of 36 studies. As a result, in children with autism spectrum disorder with (i) the presence of muscle weakness: yoga may decrease sympathetic activity and autonomic arousal and thereby improve handgrip strength (HGS); (ii) lowered cardiac vagal tone and elevated sympathetic tone, resulting in autonomic abnormalities including impaired language, attention, and cognition: yoga reduces blood pressure and improves attention without sympathetic activation; (iii) slower reaction times and greater standard deviations: Pranayama practice enhances central processing ability; and (iv) sensory processing issues with behavior regulations give rise to the presence of repetitive behaviors: yoga improves sensory integration, motor imitations, communications, and their own thoughts and behaviors related to physical, social, and emotional well-being. Hence, this review of clinical studies suggests that approach built on yoga intervention is worth pursuing. Desired outcomes include reduction of autism rate and improved quality of life.
  3,360 2 -
Concept of Manas: Insights from Nyāya Darśana and Āyurveda
Hetal Amin, Rohit Sharma, Hitesh A Vyas, Mahesh K Vyas
July-December 2014, 46(3):71-75
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.159741  
Studying a single Shāstra (treatise) is not enough to grab the true import of any concept. For a truly inter-disciplinary approach, knowledge of as many allied branches, be it from science or philosophy, is desirable. Nyāya philosophy is a system of logic or rules, whereas Āyurveda is the science of life. The relationship of Manas (~mind) to the body is accepted by both Āyurveda and Nyāya philosophy. In order to gain a better understanding of the concept of Manas, it is necessary to screen the philosophical views, which are present in ancient Āyurvedic as well as Nyāya texts. Therefore, in the current article, an attempt has been made to derive the concept of Manas from Nyāya philosophy as well as Āyurvedic science .
  3,230 17 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Integral Yoga - A new yoga
Niranjana H Bhate
January-June 2014, 46(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.140635  
Background: Many new systems of yoga have emerged in India in the last few centuries. Their uniqueness lies in their distinct philosophy and methods. Clear understanding of the aims and methods of any system of yoga is essential to attain its desired goal. Aim: The objective of this paper is to study Sri Aurobindo's Integral Yoga and to see if its aims and methods are new and differ from those of the traditional systems of yoga. Materials and Methods: The current study used the descriptive method, wherein there was comparison of content from texts. Sri Aurobindo's books on yoga and other reference works constituted the primary and secondary sources, respectively. Results: Based on analysis of the content referred to, it has been observed that the aims and methods of Integral Yoga are new. Conclusion: The study revealed the fact that even though Integral Yoga synthesizes various Indian traditional systems of yoga, due to its distinct aims and methods, we can consider it as a new yoga.
  2,881 13 -
EDITORIAL
Ninety-year old yoga research legacy on the web
Ranjit S Bhogal
January-June 2014, 46(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.141399  
  2,704 34 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Psychiatry, spirituality, and quantum science
Hitesh Chandrakant Sheth
January-June 2019, 51(1):17-22
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_6_19  
It would be impossible to comprehend the complexity of a human brain by a single cell organism; similarly, it would be impossible to understand the complexity of “Reality ”or “Ultimate Truth ”by a human brain hampered by limitations. At best, it can arrive at approximations of truth, which would vary from a person to person and a being to being. That is why, Jain philosophy while explaining Truth stresses on “Anekāntavāda” multiple aspects of Truth or Reality. Vedas too, while explaining Truth says, “Ekam sat vipraa bahudhaa vadanti” which is literally translated as “Truth is one, but the learned ones refer to it in different names. ”If a human mind is made to understand that what it claims as sole truth may be an aspect of truth or a truth distorted by its understanding, then it would be humble enough to respect and accept the opinions of other minds. This Socratic paradox (The only thing I know is that I know nothing.) may keep our mind open and flexible enough to discover the deeper truth of psychiatry, spirituality, and quantum science and may lead to their synthesis into some deeper science or truth.
  2,656 3 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Decision-making, human cognition, and equanimity of mind
Sisir Roy
January-June 2014, 46(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.140196  
Background: Decision-making is one of the most puzzling issues in modern neuro-cognitive dynamics. It depends on how the brain behaves at that particular instance and identifies and responds to a signal among myriads of noises that are present in the surroundings (called external noise) as well as in the neurons themselves (called internal noise). The ability to predict the outcome of future events is, arguably, the most universal and significant of all global brain functions. The ability to anticipate the outcome of a given action depends on sensory stimuli from the outside world and previously learned experience and/or inherited instincts. So, there is a need to formulate a theory of inference using prior knowledge for decision-making and judgment, as well as, new empirical evidences. Aims: The current paper aims to shed new light on decision-making and judgment with the help of states of mind like neutral mind and equanimity. The paper also aims at highlighting the scientific aspects of these states, which are conducive to proper decision making by an individual. Method: The current paper makes use of methods of mathematical modeling based on a generalized version of probability argument in the Bayesian framework, which includes prior knowledge for decision making and human judgment, as well as, quantum theory in order to model the cognitive domain. Result: The states of mind like neutral mind and equanimity may help an individual to take correct decision with unbiased judgment, and accomplish right cognition. Conclusion: The general Bayesian framework when coupled with quantum theory may help us to understand states of mind like neutral mind and equanimity, in which decision-making happens with unbiased judgment. The current paper also opens up a new dialog between modern science and Indian philosophy as the latter is likely to offer an explanation to the superposed state that has been studied by the scientific community in quantum theory.
  2,583 18 -
Stress and coping strategies: The impact on health
Ram Kumar Gupta, Shirley Telles, Nilkamal Singh, Acharya Balkrishna
January-June 2018, 50(1):20-26
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_1_18  
Objective: This study was conducted to assess (i) the relationship between stressful life events and coping strategies, (ii) how stressful life events influence stress indicators, and (iii) how variations in stress indicators occur according to the coping strategies adopted. Materials and Methods: Coping strategies, stressful life events, and stress indicators were assessed in 72 participants (group average age ± standard deviation, 31.9 ± 14.3 years; 36 males) as a single-group, cross-sectional study. Results: Participants with low, medium, and high stressful life events showed a positive correlation with disengagement (e.g., social withdrawal) (p < 0.01). A high level of stressful life events was positively correlated with physical (p < 0.05) and behavioral indicators (p < 0.05). Coping strategies such as problem-solving (p < 0.05) and cognitive restructuring (p < 0.05) showed a negative correlation with behavioral indicators; wishful thinking (p < 0.01) showed a positive correlation with emotional indicators. Engagement showed a negative correlation with behavioral indicators (p < 0.05) and disengagement was found to be positively correlated with emotional indicators (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The higher the stressful life event scores, the greater was the chance of using unhealthy coping strategies; (ii) high stressful life events correlated positively with physical and behavioral stress indicators; and (iii) healthy coping strategies (e.g., problem-solving) resulted in lower behavioral indicators of stress.
  2,567 27 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Relevance of pineal gland: Science versus religion
Pratap Sanchetee, Suresh C Sanchetee
July-December 2018, 50(2):41-48
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_13_18  
The pineal gland is a small but critical hormonal gland in our body. It is considered as a regulating or master gland that regulates the cycles within our bodies. Its purpose and function are still largely a mystery to science, and research on it is yielding very interesting discoveries, especially on its connection to spirituality and higher states of consciousness. Descriptions of the human anatomy derived from religious texts are often omitted from the medical literature. It may be that over time, science will validate many of these spiritual truths and statements as being based in scientific and medical fact.
  2,569 19 -
Relevance of yoga in dental education
Anjali Deshpande
January-June 2018, 50(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_24_17  
Dental education is associated with a significant amount of stress and anxiety which may lead to depression and suicidal intent in few cases. Musculoskeletal disorder is also a prevalent occupational health problem in dental professionals. This alarming situation indicates a need to modify the current education system and provide timely interventions for physical and psychological health of our future dental professionals. There is a need to develop multidisciplinary team approach of integrating dental education with yoga to promote students' health and facilitate effective health-care services to the patients. This paper attempts to identify the application of yoga in dentistry and explores the possibility of incorporating yoga in dental education. Benefits of yoga greatly contribute to preventive dentistry and oral medicine as add-on therapy complementary to standard dental procedures. Yoga offers a promising, cost-effective, complementary, preventive, and therapeutic modality. Yogic practices are useful in quitting tobacco addiction. Yoga can be beneficial for comprehensive and sustained dental care and oral health. Dental professionals with knowledge of yoga can analyze, diagnose, and prescribe yoga for therapeutic benefits to their patients and help them reduce anxiety during dental treatment. Including yoga in dental curriculum will facilitate dental students to manage patients effectively, reduce occupational hazards, cope with stress, and improve academic performance. In future, more competent dental professionals with improved work efficiency will be produced. Incorporating yoga in dental education will facilitate positive health and well-being of future dental professionals, effective patient care, and improved health-care services to the community.
  2,550 20 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of the concept of dvandva in the Pātañjala Yogasūtra from a philosophical and psycho-physiological perspective
Seema Rani Yadav
July-December 2014, 46(3):76-80
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.159743  
Background: In order to have a clearer understanding of yogic concepts as described in the Pātañjala Yogasūtra (PYS), the seminal, most authentic and authoritative, but extremely compact ancient text of yoga, there is a need for their critical study with reference to relevant commentaries and secondary sources of the PYS. Aim: The current study focused on the word dvandva (general meaning - pair, conflict) as used in the PYS, as well as various relevant commentaries on the PYS, in an attempt to explain the end effect of yogic āsana in relation to dvandva. Methods: A thorough review of the PYS and 22 commentaries on it that pertained to the concept of dvandva was conducted. The commentaries referred to were of two types: (a) Direct commentaries on the PYS and (b) indirect commentaries, i.e., commentaries on bhāṣya (commentary) of Vyāsa on the PYS. After this review, descriptive and analytical methods were used to correlate the philosophical understanding of dvandva, found in the PYS and its 22 relevant commentaries, with the psycho-physiological understanding of the concept. Results: There are mainly five pairs of words regarding dvandva pertaining to āsana in PYS and the 22 commentaries referred to. They are śïta-uṣṇa, sukha-duḥkha, māna-avamāna, kāma-krodha, and kṣut-tṛṣṇā/pipāsā. These five pairs of words are either opposites or compound words, and all of them seem to represent disturbing elements of a conflict. The psycho-physiological mechanisms, by which these five pairs of disturbing elements related to dvandva become ineffective as a result of perfection in āsana, can be hypothesized. Conclusion: The current study has attempted to critically analyze one of the important yogic concepts, dvandva. An effort has also been made to understand the mechanisms of transcending dvandva as a result of perfection in āsana, which the extremely compact PYS or its direct and indirect commentary seems to fall short of elucidating. Thus, the present study has thrown light on the need for fundamental studies of important terms or concepts mentioned in the PYS to understand their deeper meanings and probable mechanisms of action.
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EDITORIAL
Great times for great yoga are here to stay!
Praseeda Menon
July-December 2014, 46(3):57-58
DOI:10.4103/0044-0507.159734  
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