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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2017
Volume 49 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 41-75

Online since Thursday, December 7, 2017

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Yoga for better health p. 41
BN Gangadhar
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_21_17  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Role of yoga in prevention and management of lifestyle disorders Highly accessed article p. 42
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_14_17  
The modern world is facing a pandemic of lifestyle disorders that require changes to be made consciously by individuals themselves, and as yoga is the best lifestyle ever designed, it has potential in the prevention, management, and rehabilitation of prevalent lifestyle disorders. Yogic lifestyle, yogic diet, yogic attitudes, and various yogic practices help humans to strengthen themselves and develop positive health, thus enabling them to withstand stress better. This yogic “health insurance” is achieved by normalizing the perception of stress, optimizing the reaction to it, and by releasing the pent-up stress effectively through various yogic practices. This review paper summarizes important findings of a recent research on yoga in lifestyle disorders including a series of studies at Puducherry, India, documenting positive effects. The majority of studies on yoga and cardiovascular and metabolic health show positive trends and this augurs well for the future of health care in general and the use of yoga as a part of integrative health care in particular. Major benefits of yoga may occur due to its lifestyle components (healthy diet, activity, relaxation, and positive attitude) as well as psychosomatic harmonizing effects of pranayama and yogic relaxation. Yoga places a great importance on a proper and healthy lifestyle whose main components are achar (healthy activities), vichar (healthy relationships), vichar (healthy thoughts), ahar (healthy food), and vihar (healthy recreation). The basic yogic principles useful in the management of lifestyle disorders are discussed including psychological reconditioning and development of appropriate attitudes; stress management normalization of metabolism; and relaxation, visualization, and contemplative practices.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effect of yoga and panchakarma therapy on psychophysiological variables: A pilot study p. 48
Anita Verma, Sanjay Uddhav Shete, Gururaj Rudrappa Doddoli
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_18_17  
Background of the Study: Yoga and Ayurveda are two interrelated traditional Indian sciences which have been found to be complementary to each other when administered together. Panchakarma is a specific procedure in ayurvedic science for purification and detoxification of the body. It leads to expulsion of toxins from the body with the help of five therapeutic treatment procedures, i.e., vamana, virechana, basti, nasya, and raktamokshana. Objective of the Study: The objective was to assess the effect of yoga and panchakarma therapy on psychophysiological variables in participants visiting health-care center, Kaivalyadhama. Method: Nine Japanese study participants (average age: 48.8 years) were selected to validate the outcomes of yoga and panchakarma therapy on physiological, biochemical, and psychological variables. At the baseline, lipid profile and body composition analyses were done, and the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life questionnaire was administered. After completion of 2 weeks of yoga and panchakarma therapy, posttest was conducted. Percentage-wise analysis was done to analyze the findings of the study. Results: The results revealed 7.1%, 10.87%, 9.78%, and 10% reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein, respectively. There was an improvement in fat mass (9.3%), body mass index (3.77%), and fat-free mass (2.28%). Quality of life on all the domains, i.e., physical health (33.49%), psychological health (12.78%), social relationships (8.87%), and environment (12.74%) showed considerable improvement after 2 weeks of yoga and panchakarma therapy. Conclusion: Yoga and panchakarma therapy given at Kaivalyadhama is extremely effective in restoring physical, mental, and emotional well-being of an individual.
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Impact of pranayama and vedic mathematics on math anxiety and cognitive skills p. 53
Vasant Venkatraman Shastri, Alex Hankey, Bhawna Sharma, Sanjib Patra
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_13_17  
Context: Many children have low self-confidence in mathematics, leading to math anxiety, disturbed cognitive skills, and reduction of the quality of their educational experience. Aims: This study aimed to compare methods of reducing such anxiety and improving cognitive skills using pranayama; and second, introducing pattern recognition in problem solving, using methods of Vedic Mathematics. These methods were chosen because pranayamas are well-established, standardized means of anxiety reduction for any stressful condition, offering a precise standard for comparison, while, Vedic Mathematics shortens and facilitates calculations. Settings and Design: The study design was a randomized controlled trial with three groups: Yoga pranayama (YP), Vedic Mathematics (VM), and controls (CG) taking 12th grade students from a private preuniversity college in India. Method: Intervention was 15 days each of 30 min daily instruction in either selected YP or VM for the two experimental groups. All the three groups received conventional math training every day. Exclusion criteria were major psychological problems. Assessments used the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Revised and Children's Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental groups improved on all subscales of both tests, p < 0.001: the VM group improving more on the first test and the pranayama group performing better on the second test. Controls showed no improvements. Conclusion: Introducing pranayama and VM methods as teaching aids would improve cognitive skills and reduce math anxiety and offer a means to improve examination results, as later demonstrated.
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Influence of pranayama on breath holding capacity and reaction time of junior state level elite swimmers p. 63
Tusharkanti Bera, Kanchan Chourasia, Sanjay Uddhav Shete, Anita Verma
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_19_17  
Introduction: Sport like swimming requires maximum accuracy in style, fitness, skill and training. Moreover, the swimmers must possess a better reaction time as well as breath holding capacity that saves time for exhibiting best performance. Objective: It is thought that regular practice of kumbhaka phase of pranayama may improve swimmers' breath holding capacity and reaction time. Since literature is silent about this concept, the present investigation was carried out. Method: Thirty male state level swimmers (n = 30), age: 16-18 years, volunteered in this study. This experiment considered a single group design, where all the selected subjects were assessed for two variables viz., reaction time and breath holding capacity at the baseline (i.e., 1st test or pre-test). Further, after a 6-week of swimming practice (1½ hours daily in the afternoon), the variables were re-tested (i.e., 2nd test or mid-test). After the 2nd test was over, all the subjects underwent 6 weeks of combined practice (i.e., swimming followed by pranayama) for 1½ hours daily in the morning. Finally, the subjects were assessed for the selected variables (i.e., 3rd test or posttest). Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA followed by Newman-Kuels post hoc test was employed to record influence of pranayama practices on the variables. Results: The results revealed that swimming plus pranayama training leads to significant increase in breath holding capacity whereas reduction in reaction time. Conclusion: Pranayama practice leads to significant improvement in breath holding capacity and reaction time of swimmers.
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Effects of yoga as a therapy for physical and psychological hazards in dentists in Wardha region p. 68
Shravani G Deolia, Ashabil Rizhana, Joanne George, Himani Ingle, Rushikesh Bonde
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_17_17  
Introduction: Yoga is an ancient science of body and mind coordination and is widely practiced as well as researched globally. Various yoga postures are considered therapeutic and can be used to treat physical hazards which have direct relation to dentistry procedures such as musculoskeletal complications and to reduce stress. The ultimate goal of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic potential of yoga in the treatment of psychological and physical hazards among dentists in Wardha region. Objective: This study aims to understand the effect of yoga as a therapeutic aid for the treatment of psychological and physical hazards among dental interns aged between 21 and 24 years in Sharad Pawar Dental College, DMIMS (DU), Wardha region, Maharashtra (India). Method: In this study, dental interns aged between 21 and 24 years were examined to understand the effect of yoga as a therapeutic aid for the treatment of psychological and physical hazards of dental practice. They were subjected to a pretest questionnaire, and then, they were trained and made to undergo yoga session for a month under a trained supervision, after which they were given a posttest questionnaire assessing if there is a reduction in the levels of stress and relief from their musculoskeletal ailments. Results: There was a significant improvement in the quality of life of the participants. Earlier, 64.3% of the interns complained of not being able to provide quality treatment to their patients due to stress and 54.3% could not cope up with their workload previously; after a month of yoga therapy, 62.9% of the interns felt a significant change in the quality of treatment they were providing to the patients and 62.9% of the interns found it easier to cope up with their workload. Previously, 40% of the interns had complained about backaches due to long-standing work hours and 42.9% of the interns had complained of headaches; after the therapy, 44.3% of the interns claimed that their backache had reduced significantly and 42.9% of the interns claimed that the number of times they suffered a headache has reduced. Conclusion: Considering the results, a fair conclusion can be drawn that practicing yoga on a daily basis can have a significant change in the lifestyle of a dentist by allowing them to maintain their health as well as relieving them from their day-to-day stress.
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