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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2019
Volume 51 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 41-70

Online since Monday, December 9, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

Qualitative analysis in yoga research: Quantifying the experiential phenomena p. 41
Ranjeet Singh Bhogal
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_20_19  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Integrated yoga therapy for teaching toothbrushing skills to children with autism spectrum disorder: A qualitative study of parents' perceptions p. 43
R Eswari, GS Prathima, A Sanguida, Meena Ramanathan, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, E Harikrishnan
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_17_19  
Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit poor oral health due to lack of manual dexterity. Regular training methods such as visual pedagogy and video modeling (VM) for developing the skill of toothbrushing do not address the core deficits which facilitate their effective and quick learning. Hence, there arises the need of an integrated therapy which can complement these regular training techniques. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate whether yoga can complement the regular training methods in teaching the brushing skill to children with ASD. Materials and Methods: Two groups of 36 children with ASD aged 7–15 years were imparted visual pedagogy and VM in Group I and additional yoga in Group II. Assessment of toothbrushing skill was done by parents and teachers independently using the perception and assessment forms, respectively. Results: By the end of 6 months, higher percentage of parents of children in Group II observed improvements in their child's brushing skill as compared to parents of children in Group I. Based on the teachers' observation, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean number of days the children watched the video completely (p = 0.001), with children in Group II watching the video for more number of days. Conclusion: Yoga has a positive and additive role along with the regular training methods for toothbrushing in children with ASD.
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Effect of yoga ocular exercises on intraocular pressure Highly accessed article p. 48
Satish Kumar Gupta, S Aparna
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_13_19  
Background: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of global blindness and is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss. Hence, it becomes very important in guiding the designs of glaucoma screening, treatment, and intraocular pressure (IOP) control methods. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of yoga ocular exercises on IOP. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one undergraduate optometry students (62 eyes) who satisfied the inclusion criteria after a baseline comprehensive eye examination were selected for the study and were assigned to two groups: an exercise group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 16). A baseline IOP measurement was done for both groups. The exercise group performed yoga ocular exercises for 30 min/day for 5 days a week for up to 6 weeks. IOP was measured for both eyes for all participants at the end of each week for up to 6 weeks. Results: In the exercise group, there was a highly statistically significant reduction in IOP in both eyes (p = 0.000 in the right eye [RE] and p = 0.001 in the left eye [LE]). Whereas in the control group, there was an insignificant change in IOP (p = 0.751 in the RE and p = 0.809 in the LE). Conclusions: The yoga ocular exercises induce a significant reduction in IOP and hence can be considered as a nonpharmacological intervention for lowering the IOP for the management and treatment plan of various ocular diseases or disorders associated with ocular hypertension.
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Assessment of Pradhana Sharir and Manas Prakriti(bodily and mental constitution) in the manifestation of diabetes mellitus p. 54
Amin Hetalben, Hitesh Vyas, Mahesh Vyas
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_11_19  
Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most menacing disorder in Ayurveda, and it is equated to Madhumeha. The concept of Prakriti (human constitution) can be applied for manifestation and prognosis of diseases. Therefore, in this study, we intend to study Pradhana Sharira and Manas Prakriti (dominant bodily and mental constitution) in Madhumeha (DM)) participants. Materials and Methods: Prakriti of 103 participants of DM was assessed as per Prakriti assessment pro forma. Vata-, Pitta-, and Kapha Dosha (bodily humors)-dominant Prakriti were analyzed according to the characteristics found in participants. Results: Nearly 38.46% Kapha Pradhana Prakriti and 41.5% Tamas Pradhana Prakriti participants were found maximum. Conclusion: Dominant Kapha and Tamas Prakriti have influence on the manifestation of Madhumeha (DM).
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Call for global standards in clinical yoga trials p. 63
Atul Kumar Goyal
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_12_19  
Clinical yoga trials, which were conducted in medical research institutes, found to skew toward imposing positive health impacts. Several concerns related with the clinical yoga trials including the availability of exclusive ethical committee to review yoga research proposal, compensation to the poor patients, patient's actual will to participate in the study, yoga trainer qualification, insurance policy for patients if being harmed, standard yoga protocols (exercise, stretching, bending, meditation, music, timings, and duration), mode of training (self-practice by video or personal trainer), assessment of level of compliance, religious concerns, law and legislation have been neglected, not highlighted, or not well justified by most of the studies. The present article represents the grassroot level of experience of clinical yoga trials in medical research institutes and recommended that, until and unless the global standards for clinical yoga trials have not been introduced, for the safety of the patient, either yoga trials should not be allowed in medical and research institutes or all institutions should follow the standard study designs described in highly indexed standard journals.
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Tirumūlar on evaluating the qualitative standard of the pace of exhaling breath in pranayama practitioners p. 68
Subramanian Saravanan, Ramakrishnan Iyankannu
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_15_19  
Tirumūlar's Tirumantiram is the earliest known Tamil treatise on yoga, in which 14 poems are dedicated to the practice of pranayama. These poems give a detailed insight on the methods and benefits of pranayama. The purpose of the study is to advance ideas related to pranayama by proposing a test to identify the stages of progression of a pranayama practitioner. The proposed test is based on the method prescribed in the poems of pranayama in Tirumantiram on evaluating the qualitative standard of the pace of exhaling breath in pranayama practitioners. The verse 567 from the research edition of Tirumantiram critically edited by Annamalai was selected for decoding in which the highest quality standard for the three phases of breath in a pranayama cycle, namely Pūraka (inhalation), Kumbhaka (retention) and Rēsaka (exhalation) is described. On the highest quality standard of Rēsaka, Tirumūlar says 'the exhaling breath should not cause flutters in powder of bran kept nearby'. The description exhibits a method to visually evaluate the pace of exhaling breath by observing its impact on powder of bran. Tirumūlar's ideology on “the exhaling breath and its impact on rice bran powder” could be developed in the name of 'Bran test' to identify the stages of progression of a pranayama practitioner.
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