ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 76-80

Study of the concept of dvandva in the Pātañjala Yogasūtra from a philosophical and psycho-physiological perspective


Research Assistant, Philosophico Literary Research Department, Kaivalyadhama S.M.Y.M. Samiti, Lonavala, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Seema Rani Yadav
Research Assistant, Philosophico-Literary Research Department, Kaivalyadhama, S.M.Y.M. Samiti, Lonavala - 410 403, Maharashtra
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0044-0507.159743

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Background: In order to have a clearer understanding of yogic concepts as described in the Pātañjala Yogasūtra (PYS), the seminal, most authentic and authoritative, but extremely compact ancient text of yoga, there is a need for their critical study with reference to relevant commentaries and secondary sources of the PYS. Aim: The current study focused on the word dvandva (general meaning - pair, conflict) as used in the PYS, as well as various relevant commentaries on the PYS, in an attempt to explain the end effect of yogic āsana in relation to dvandva. Methods: A thorough review of the PYS and 22 commentaries on it that pertained to the concept of dvandva was conducted. The commentaries referred to were of two types: (a) Direct commentaries on the PYS and (b) indirect commentaries, i.e., commentaries on bhāṣya (commentary) of Vyāsa on the PYS. After this review, descriptive and analytical methods were used to correlate the philosophical understanding of dvandva, found in the PYS and its 22 relevant commentaries, with the psycho-physiological understanding of the concept. Results: There are mainly five pairs of words regarding dvandva pertaining to āsana in PYS and the 22 commentaries referred to. They are śïta-uṣṇa, sukha-duḥkha, māna-avamāna, kāma-krodha, and kṣut-tṛṣṇā/pipāsā. These five pairs of words are either opposites or compound words, and all of them seem to represent disturbing elements of a conflict. The psycho-physiological mechanisms, by which these five pairs of disturbing elements related to dvandva become ineffective as a result of perfection in āsana, can be hypothesized. Conclusion: The current study has attempted to critically analyze one of the important yogic concepts, dvandva. An effort has also been made to understand the mechanisms of transcending dvandva as a result of perfection in āsana, which the extremely compact PYS or its direct and indirect commentary seems to fall short of elucidating. Thus, the present study has thrown light on the need for fundamental studies of important terms or concepts mentioned in the PYS to understand their deeper meanings and probable mechanisms of action.


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