Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43-55

A brief introduction of "Yogāsana - Jaina": An unpublished yoga manuscript


Department of Philosophico-Literary Research, Kaivalyadhama Yoga Institute, Lonavala, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication22-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Gyan S Sahay
Department of Philosophico-Literary Research (PLRD), Kaivalydhama Yoga Institute, Lonavala - 410 403, Maharashtra
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0044-0507.141413

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  Abstract 

Background: Considering the need to unearth the knowledge of yoga hidden in various handwritten manuscripts, the Philosophico-Literary Research Department of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavala has undertaken a long-term project on unpublished manuscripts.
Aims: The current research work aims to study an unpublished yoga manuscript, "Yogāsana-Jaina," by exploring the details in relation to the author as well as the content.
Method: The method followed for the current study was descriptive. First, translation of the Ms. from Sanskrit to English, and then a critical analysis of the content were done.
Results: The whole manuscript, Yogāsana-Jaina, is devoted to the description of āsana s related with Jaina tradition. It describes around 107 āsana s with illustration of each āsana . Out of 107 āsana s, some āsana s are variations of many popular yoga āsanas , some āsana s are presented with right and left variations, whereas some āsana s are presented in different variations as well as names.
Conclusion: The current Ms. can serve to be of great interest to the yoga practitioners/scholars/researchers interested in the variations of āsana s according to tradition, religion, and/or culture.

Keywords: āsana , Jaina tradition, unpublished manuscript, Yoga


How to cite this article:
Satapathy B, Sahay GS. A brief introduction of "Yogāsana - Jaina": An unpublished yoga manuscript. Yoga Mimamsa 2014;46:43-55

How to cite this URL:
Satapathy B, Sahay GS. A brief introduction of "Yogāsana - Jaina": An unpublished yoga manuscript. Yoga Mimamsa [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Aug 25];46:43-55. Available from: http://www.ym-kdham.in/text.asp?2014/46/1/43/141413


  Introduction Top


Considering the need to unearth the knowledge of yoga hidden in various handwritten manuscripts, the Philosophico-Literary Research Department (PLRD) of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavala has undertaken a long-term project on unpublished manuscripts. The manuscript (Ms.) used for the current study is totally devoted to the description of āsanas and describes around 108 āsanas. The title of the Ms. is "Yogāsana-Jaina." There are many manuscripts and published texts which describe the number of āsanas as ranging from 84 to 100 and even more. One of the published books that describe more than 84 āsanas is Jogapradīpyakā (Maheshananda, Sharma, Sahay, & Bodhe, 2006). Some of the unpublished manuscripts are Yogāsanamālā (Sacitra) (Jaitrāma, n.d.), āsanayoga (Kapālakuraṇṭaka, n.d.), and Siddhāntamuktāvalī (n.d.). Out of the unpublished manuscripts named above, i.e. Yogāsanamālā (Sacitra), is devoted to the description of āsanas in a dialect of Hindi and provides illustrations of āsanas. However, the manuscript used for the current study, "Yogāsana-Jaina,0" seems to be different and interesting because it represents one special sect of religion and the āsanas described seem to be especially for the followers of that religion. It also provides the illustration of each āsana. This Ms. was procured from Rajasthan Prachya Vidya Pratishthana, Bikaner, Rajasthan, a copy of which is available at Kaivalyadhama Library (Accession No. R635y8/15294). We find this manuscript referred to in the Encyclopaedia of āsanas (Gharote, Jha, Devnath, & Sakhalkar, 2006). The compiler of the said encyclopaedia has referred to all the āsanas available in "Yogāsana-Jaina," but has not provided composite and analytical information about this Ms. The current study was undertaken in order to attract the āsana practitioners as well as scholars toward this manuscript, so that they are benefitted from the not so easily accessible information inside it.

Aims

The current research work on an unpublished yoga manuscript, "Yogāsana-Jaina," has the following aims:

  1. To explore the details of the manuscript in relation to the author
  2. To study the content of the manuscript in detail



  Method Top


The method followed for the current study was descriptive. First, translation of the Ms. from Sanskrit to English, and then a critical analysis of the content were done. The content was critically analyzed by broadly comparing the similarities and differences between all the āsanas mentioned in the current Ms. with those of classic texts in the Yogic literature.


  Results Top


  1. Limited information is available about the author of the Ms.
  2. The current manuscript presents 108 āsanas, but one is missing, due to which there are illustrations of only 107 āsanas. Of the 107 āsanas, some āsanas are variations of many popular yoga āsanas, some āsanas are presented with right and left variations, whereas some āsanas are presented in different variations as well as names.
  3. This Ms. was not influenced by the Haṭhayogic tradition of āsanas.
  4. The purpose of some āsanas mentioned in the Ms. is clearly related to the followers of the Jaina religion, viz., āsana Nos 1, 4, 7, 12, and 108.
  5. The author and the translator of the current Ms. were familiar with the therapeutic advantages of practicing some āsanas as āsana nos 4, 5, 6, 10, and 13 mention health benefits.



  Discussion Top


This section explores the details of the manuscript in relation to the author as well as the content of the manuscript.

The manuscript in relation to the author

  1. There is no information about the author of this Ms. in terms of the author's name and time of birth or death.
  2. The non-availability of description on all the āsanas points to two possibilities: i.) the original author might have written verses on all āsanas but the compiler-cum-translator did not consider including all the verses in the manuscript or ii.) the original author himself had not written verses on all the āsanas.
  3. The translator seems to be from Gujarat as the first verse has been translated in both Gujarati and Hindi. It is not clear as to why the other 16 verses have not been translated in Gujarati also.
  4. The presentation of this manuscript is not up to the mark as it lacks several pieces of information as described earlier. However, the information provided about the various āsanas is important and requires the attention of scholars and yoga practitioners.


The content

A general estimate about the content of the manuscript

  1. The manuscript has a total of 66 folios. Twenty-four āsanas have been given independent status, i. e. one āsana in one folio (refer Figure 1), whereas 42 folios have been presented with the illustrations of two āsanas in one folio.
    Figure 1: Dīkṣāsana with Note (Folio No - 1)

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  2. The manuscript seems to be a compilation or is at least rewritten by the translator of the verses available on 17 āsanas. āsana no. 18 is missing.
  3. Nothing is known about the author of this text nor do we have any additional information about the Ms. As the beginning statement and colophon are missing, nothing can be said with regard to the author.
  4. Seventeen āsanas have been described in Sanskrit, along with their translation. A total of 35 verses have been devoted for the description of 17 āsanas.
  5. The translation of two verses indicates that the translator is not the original writer of the manuscript "Yogāsana." We find this in the context of the translation of 11 th āsana, i.e. Siddhāsana, and the 13 th āsana, i.e. Dakṣiṇāsana.
  6. While translating the verse on Siddhāsana, the translator writes that this āsana is also known as Muktāsana, Guptāsana, and Vajrāsana, as we find in Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. I / 37). The addition of Muktāsana in this context indicates that he is not the original writer of the manuscript or verses but only a compiler, and also that he was familiar with Haṭhapradīpikā. Similarly, we find that in the context of Dakṣiṇāsana (āsana no. 17), while translating the verse on this āsana, the translator writes, "According to me, the same effect is possible if we do it from the left side." This sentence confirms that the original writer of the verses is different from the translator.
  7. The selection of āsanas, the way they have been described, and their illustrations, all indicate that this manuscript and the āsanas contained therein are related with the followers of Jaina religion. Even in the Jaina religion, these āsanas seem to represent the śvetāmbar Jaina sect of Jaina religion, which insists on wearing white clothes and keeping the mouth covered with a piece of white cloth. The mouth covered with a piece of cloth is visible in the illustration of the last āsana named "Vyākhyānāsana" (see āsana No. 108 of the current Ms.)
  8. These āsanas also give us information about the āsanas popular in Jaina tradition. We have the information of two traditions of āsana identified as "MUNI" and "YOGI" tradition according to Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. I /18). The āsanas described in the text under study seem to be the āsanas of Jaina tradition, especially the āsanas such as Dīkṣāsana, Vyākhyānāsana, and so on. This also provides a reason to think about the possibility of various traditions of āsanas.
  9. The sketches provided as illustrations also give a reflection of a Jaina Muni or a Jaina follower.
  10. Out of the 17 āsanas described in metrical forms in the Anuṣtup metre, we find an instruction of meditation upon Arihanta Deva in 9 āsanas. These nine āsanas are: Dīkṣāsana, Padmāsana, Svastikāsana, Nivṛtyāsana, Paρjāsana, Bhagāsana, Devaguruvandanāsana, Paρcāṅanamaskārāsana, and Kārmukāsana. We also find instructions for the recitation of "OM" in Siddhāsana and " śaṃ" referring to Parameṣṭhī in Dakṣiṇāsana.


āsanas mentioned in the manuscript

There are references of 107 (āsana no. 18 is missing) āsanas, of which only 17 have been described in Sanskrit verses and their translation has also been provided. The rest of the āsanas are available only with their names and illustrations. Following are the list of āsanas recorded in this manuscript and presented through graphical pictures.



Following is the description of some selected āsanas out of 17 āsanas, with their speciality as described in the verses

āsana No. 1- Dīkṣāsana [vide [Figure 1] & [Figure 2]
Figure 2: āsana No. 1. Dīkṣāsana

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The first āsana, "Dīkṣāsana," is a typical Jaina āsana which consists in taking standing position under the "A śoka tree" and taking out hair from five places of the head.

  1. Meditation on Arihanta forms an important instruction.


āsana No. 3- Pavanamuktāsana [vide [Figure 3]: This āsana is traditionally performed in supine position with legs folded at the knee. However, in the current Ms., it is illustrated in sitting position. The text further informs that it is beneficial for the nāḍīs in the abdominal area.
Figure 3: āsana No. 3. Pavanamuktāsana

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āsana No. 4- Padmāsana [vide [Figure 4]: The technique is similar to that of the second variety of Padmāsana as described in Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. I / 45, 46). There are two differences in the technique that can be mentioned here. They are:
Figure 4: āsana No. 4. Padmāsana

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  1. No mention of rising of the Apāna Vāyu upward
  2. Text mentions concentration upon "Arihanta Deva"


Benefits:

  1. Diseases are pacified
  2. Respiration becomes slow
  3. Self proceeds toward liberation
  4. Knowledge, meditation, and lifespan increase


āsana No. 5- Ekapādāsana [vide [Figure 5]: This is done by standing on the left leg and placing the right leg on the left thigh as in Padmāsana.
Figure 5: āsana No. 5. Ekapādāsana

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Benefits:

  1. It purifies the blood
  2. Fever is eradicated from its root forever


āsana No. 6- Baddhapadmāsana [vide [Figure 6]: As far as the technique and illustration are concerned, the position of the body is exactly the same as we find in Yoga texts such as Gorakṣā śatakam or Haṭhapradīpikā. However, these texts call it only Padmāsana, but here it is mentioned as Baddhapadmāsana.
Figure 6: āsana No. 6. Baddhapadmāsana

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Benefits:

1. This āsana purifies the abdomen, eyes, speech, and mind.

āsana No. 7- Udāsīnatāsana [vide [Figure 7]: This āsana is a typical Jaina āsana. We do not come across such an āsana in other yoga texts. This is done by adopting a simple sitting position, placing the right elbow on the right thigh, resting the right side of the face on the right palm, and placing the left hand on left thigh near the knee. This is to be practiced by a Jaina monk who has the knowledge and he is suggested to think of some problem. Practice of this type of āsana results into death of the person shortly. Probably, this āsana was suggested for a Jaina monk who wants to leave the body and the world.
Figure 8: āsana No. 9 Nivrityāsana

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āsana No. 9- Nivṛtyāsana [vide [Figure 8]: This is done by adopting a simple sitting position, folding hands in a crossed way, keeping them near the chest, and then reciting Arihant Bhagawān from the body, mind, and speech and by withdrawing all desires.{Figure 8}

Benefits:

1. As a result of the practice, the Sādhaka attains accomplishment of speech.

āsana No. 10- Paρjāsana [vide [Figure 9]: In this āsana, one has to stand on the toes with hands crossed across the chest and meditate upon Siddha Bhagawān. This āsana is also known as Utthita āsana, Ghanāsana, etc.
Figure 9: āsana No. 10. Pañjāsana

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Benefits:

  1. Internal Vāyu gets purified
  2. Internal fire (gastric fire)increases
  3. One accomplishes his goal


āsana No. 11- Siddhāsana [vide [Figure 10]: In this āsana, heel arrangements are exactly the same as we find in Haṭhapradīpikā. However, the description also suggests recitation of OMKARA seed sound. This results in accomplishment of any desire. The verse informs that this āsana is also known as Gupta and Mukta. While translating the verse, the translator adds the name of Vajra also.
Figure 10: āsana No. 11. Siddhāsana

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āsana No. 12- Bhagāsana [vide [Figure 11]: Its technique is similar to the technique of Nādānusandhāna described in Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. IV/68). However, there is no mention of Nādānusandhāna in the current Ms. This particular practice is grouped under Mudrā, and known as ṣaṇmukhī Mudrā as well as Yonimudrā. It seems that the practice is associated with the name Yoni, therefore, here it has been named Bhagāsana. Bhag and Yoni denote the same part of the female body. The special instruction is to meditate upon Arihant in this position.
Figure 11: āsana No. 12. Bhagāsana

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Benefit:

1. Mind gets stabilized as a result of the practicing this āsana.

āsana No. 13- Dakṣiṇāsana [vide [Figure 12]: This is done in a sleeping position on the right side and by keeping the body and limbs straight. The head is kept elevated by supporting it with the right palm. The left hand is placed on the left thigh. The verse suggests recitation of " śaṃ" seed mantra denoting Parameṣṭhī. The translator has added a point in translation that doing this āsana from the left side can also yield the same result as dong it from the right.
Figure 12: āsana No. 13 Dakṣiṇāsana

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Benefits:

  1. Diseases are cured
  2. Anxiety also disappears
  3. Bad dreams or wet dreams are also cured
  4. Digestive power increases
  5. Gastric fire increases


āsana No. 14- Devaguruvandanāsana [vide [Figure 13]: Sit by placing the toes and knees on the ground and recite verses of adoration for Arihant or Guru.
Figure 13: āsana No. 14. Devaguruvandanāsana

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Benefit:

1.This practice results in purification of intellect, knowledge, and character.

āsana No. 15- Paρcāṅganamaskārāsana [vide [Figure 14]: Prostrating with toes of both legs, knees of both legs, and the forehead on the ground and adoring Arihant Bhagwan and Guru Maharaj is known as Paρcāṅganamaskārāsana. This āsana has also been described by Tirthankra Maharaj.
Figure 14: āsana No.15. Pañcāṅganamaskārāsana

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Benefit:

1. This āsana makes the thought pure and increases the virtues.

āsana No. 16- Kāyotsargāsana [vide [Figure 15]: Standing straight on the ground, with toes at a distance of four fingers from each other and heels at a distance of two fingers, gazing on the heart and reciting the name of Parame śwara makes a practitioner claimant for liberation. He also becomes detached from the world.
Figure 15: āsana No.16. Kāyotsargāsana

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āsana No. 17- Kārmukāsana [vide [Figure 16]: Adopting Padmāsana and catching hold of the toes from the front side - right toe from the right hand and left toe from the left hand - is known as Kārmukāsana. It is also suggested that one meditate upon Arihanta or Muni Mahͱraj. In Baddhapadmāsana, the toes are held from the back side; but here, the toes are held from the front.
Figure 16: āsana No. 17. Karmukāsana

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Benefit:

1. This āsana generates heat in the body.

The above descriptions present special features of some āsanas from the group of 17 āsanas, which clearly indicate that these are Jaina āsanas and therefore the recitation or meditation on Arihanta mantra or Arihanta Bhagawan is necessary. Such instructions are absent in the usual yoga texts.

Besides the above-mentioned 17 āsanas, we also find names and illustrations of 90 āsanas. Although the techniques are not written, the illustrations make the technique clear. However, there is no information about the benefits of the 90 āsanas, which is a loss to yoga practitioners. The examples of such āsanas which are popular but presented with variations are given below. Some of these āsanas are presented with right and left variations, and some āsanas are quite new and particular to the Jaina religion.

āsanas having popular names, but presented with variations/differences

āsana No. 21
- Trikoṇāsana [vide [Figure 17]: This āsana is traditionally performed in standing position, but here it is described in a sitting position.
Figure 17: āsana No. 21. Trikoṇāsana

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āsana No. 29 - Bhujaṅgāsana [vide [Figure 18]: The illustration of this āsana is quite unique as it seems that after adopting the initial prone body position and keeping the palm on the ground near the shoulder, both upper and lower parts of the body are to be curved upward as if doing Naukāsana in prone position. Contrary to this, the back is kept straight in the popular variation of Bhujaṅgāsana.
Figure 18: āsana No. 29. Bhujaṅgāsana

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āsana No. 30- Sarvāṅgāsana [vide [Figure 19]: This manuscript mentions Sarvāṅgāsana which is translated as shoulder-stand āsana. But the illustration provided is closer to the traditional Viparītakaraṇī position.
Figure 19: āsana No. 30. Sarvāṅgāsana

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āsana No. 31 - Marālāsana [vide [Figure 20]: On the basis of the illustration provided, we can say that this āsana is popularly known as Hansāsana. This is actually a simplified form of Mayϋrāsana. Ladies who have an anatomically weak abdomen are not suggested Mayϋrāsana ; instead Hansāsana is recommended for them. In Hansāsana, we can keep the toes on the ground due to which the vigorous pressure on the abdominal area is reduced, and hence it is suggested for ladies. In the current Ms. also, the toes are shown resting on the ground. Hansāsana is known here by the name "Marālāsana."
Figure 20: āsana No. 31. Marālāsana

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āsana No. 36 - Kandapījayāsana [vide [Figure 21]: This seems to be a modified name of Kandapīḍāsana. The difference between the two lies in the fact that Kandapīḍāsana is performed in sitting position whereas Kandapījayāsana is performed by balancing oneself on knees. In both the practices, the legs are folded at knee in such a way that toes of both the legs press the area of kanda which is the navel region according to Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. III /113).
Figure 21: āsana No. 36. Kandapījayāsana

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āsana No. 38- Bhadrāsana [vide [Figure 22]: This āsana is available in Haṭhapradīpikā as well as Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā, and there are some differences in the final position in both the texts. In Haṭhapradīpikā, it is done by joining both the soles in sitting position and then bringing both the heels together below the perineum. According to Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 9, 10), the soles are inverted and then the toes are brought near the perineum, and only the heels are visible from the front side. The illustration provided in the current Ms. tallies neither with Haṭhapradīpikā nor with Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā.
Figure 22: āsana No. 38. Bhadrāsana

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āsana No. 39 - Maṇḍϋkāsana [vide [Figure 23]: In Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 34), we find a different description of Maṇḍϋkāsana, wherein after adopting Vajrāsana both the knees are separated as much as possible. However, the illustration provided in the current Ms. suggests that the position of the legs are closer to that of Bhadrāsana as described in Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 9, 10).

āsana No. 40 - Utkaṭāsana [vide [Figure 24]: Utkaṭāsana, as described in Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 26), does not give details of the position of legs, but traditionally the legs are kept at a distance of around 10 inches as it facilitates the practice of Basti. We find reference of Utkaṭāsana as part of the practice of Basti in both Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. II / 27) and Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. I / 45). Now, since the verse in the current Ms. does not speak anything about the position of legs, the illustration provided seems to be correct. However, it is also true that the position given in the manuscript is not conducive for Basti.
Figure 23: āsana No. 39. Maṇḍūkāsana

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Figure 24: āsana No. 40. Utkaṭāsana

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āsana No. 44- śramaharāsana [vide [Figure 25]: The name suggests that it is meant for the removal of fatigue. śavāsana is a more popular āsana for the same purpose in Haṭhayoga texts. This is practiced in supine position with legs straight on the ground at a comfortable distance, hands by the side of the body at a distance of around 6 inches, fingers naturally flexed, and without tension in any part of the body. In the Haṭhayoga texts, it is clearly written as " śavāsanam śrāntiharam" (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 19; Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. I / 32). However, the body position shown in the illustration of the current Ms. is not only different but also slightly difficult in comparison to śavāsana. śramaharāsana appears more like Matsyāsana as described in Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 21).
Figure 25: āsana No. 44. ?ramaharāsana

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āsana No. 46 - Vṛkṣāsana [vide [Figure 26]: The illustration provided in the current manuscript suggests it to be a hand-stand, i.e. keeping the whole body straight in a topsy-turvy position and balancing the whole body on both the palms with straight hands. This hand-stand variation of Vṛkṣāsana is very different from the popularly known variation available in Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 36), where it has been described as an āsana of standing on one leg with one heel placed at the thigh joint.
Figure 26: āsana No. 46. Vṛkṣāsana

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āsana No. 47- Vāmasiddhāsana [vide [Figure 27]: This particular āsana, as shown in the illustration of the current Ms., can be said to be half Siddhāsana, as keeping one (right) leg straight, the left heel touches the perineum. Probably, the Dakṣiṇasiddhāsana is done with the left leg kept straight and the right heel touching the perineum.
Figure 27: āsana No. 47. Vāmasiddhāsana

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āsana No. 53- Nih śvāsāsana [vide [Figure 28]: Its illustration is very similar to Daṇḍāsana. Perhaps, this is a good posture for the practice of inhalation (Nih śvāsa).
Figure 28: āsana No. 53. Nih?vāsāsana

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āsana No. 55 - Ardhāṅghrivṛkṣāsana [vide [Figure 29]: This āsana is similar to śīrṣāsana. The difference lies in the position of legs. In the illustration of Ardhāṅghrivṛkṣāsana in the current Ms., one leg is folded at knee and the sole is placed on the side of the knee of other straight leg. In śīrṣāsana, both legs are kept straight in a topsy-turvy position.
Figure: 29 āsana No.55. Ardhāṅghri vṛkṣāsana

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āsana No. 58- Pāṇimuktadrumāsana [vide [Figure 30]: Druma means Vṛkṣa or tree, so it is a variety of Vṛkṣāsana. Pāṇimukta means keeping the hands free, but the illustration provided in the current Ms. does not seem to support the meaning of the name of this āsana. The topsy-turvy position of the whole body has been shown to be balanced on both hands. The hands are folded at elbows in such a way that the forearms are kept vertically straight, whereas the hind portion of the arms is at shoulder line. The head is also kept above the ground.
Figure 30: āsana No.58 Pāṇimuktadrumāsana

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āsana No. 83 - Dhanuṣāsana [vide [Figure 31]: This āsana reminds one about the interpretation of the verse on Dhanurāsana available in Haṭhapradīpikā. This āsana is interpreted as Dhanurākarṣaṇa āsana. The illustration in the current Ms. provides the same body position as Dhanurāsana.

āsana No. 86 - Vakrāsana [vide [Figure 32]: Kuvalayananda (1993) had innovated one āsana named Vakrāsana, which is a simpler form of Ardhamatsyendrāsana and is meant for giving twisting exercise to the spine. However, according to the current manuscript, Vakrāsana is performed by sitting straight on an elevated dais, keeping the legs folded at knee on the ground, and twisting the body toward the right side from the waist.
Figure 31: āsana No.83 Dhanuṣāsana

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Figure 32: āsana No.86. Vakrāsana

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āsana No. 99- Ϋrdhvasaṃyuktapādāsana [vide [Figure 33]: This is a variation of the popular śīrṣāsana. In its final position, one has to keep his soles joined by folding the legs at knee.
Figure 33: āsana No.99. Urdhvasamyuktapādāsana

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āsana No. 100- Ardha śabāsana [vide [Figure 34]: We have seen earlier that śramaharāsana (No. 44) has been described in Haṭhayoga texts as śavāsana Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. I / 32). In the current Ms., the name Ardha śabāsana suggests that it is a further simplified form of śramaharāsana or śavāsana. The illustration suggests that it is popularly known as Suptavajrāsana with the difference that here the hands are kept between the chest and abdomen.
Figure 34: āsana No.100. Ardha?abāsana

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āsana No. 105- Kϋrmmāsana [vide [Figure 35]: The illustration of this āsana is very similar to that of the position of Uttāna-kϋrmmāsana available in Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 33). However, Kϋrmmāsana has been described differently in Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā (Digambar & Gharote, 1978, Ch. II / 32).
Figure 35: āsana No.105. Kūrmmāsana

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āsana No. 108 - Vyākhyānāsana [vide [Figure 36]: The sitting āsana to be adopted while delivering the lecture seems to be called as Vyākhyānāsana. Covering of mouth while speaking is very popular among the people of the śvetāmbara Jaina sect. The illustration of this āsana represents the same posture.
Figure 36: āsana No.108. Vyākhyānāsana

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  Conclusion Top


The current Ms., Yogāsana-Jaina, adds one more tradition of āsanas, viz., Jaina, apart from the two available in Haṭhapradīpikā. The current Ms. is not able to give us a complete understanding of all Jaina āsanas as it has not explained all the āsanas in detail. Nevertheless, information provided through description of limited āsanas as well as illustrations of all the āsanas makes it important. The current Ms. records in detail the benefits one may obtain by practising certain āsanas. However, the benefits mentioned in the Ms. may need to be compared with those given in existing yoga literature. It appears to the authors of the current article that the mentioned benefits are not reference-based. This Ms. is a very modern text, not older than 200-250 years. Hence, it cannot be presumed that the compiler has innovative ideas on the benefits of performing āsanas. Some of the benefits mentioned seem to be mere passing expressions as well as overlap one with that of other āsanas, and hence may be difficult to justify. Yet, broadly the Ms. throws light on the possibility of innovative āsanas, which are very popular in modern times. Overall, the current Ms. can serve to be of great interest to the yoga practitioners/scholars/researchers interested in the variations of āsanas according to tradition, religion, and/or culture.[8]


  Acknowledgments Top


The authors are highly thankful to Swami Maheshanand, Director of Research, Kaivalyadhama, Shri O. P. Tiwari, Secretary, Kaivalyadhama, and Shri Subodh Tiwari, Joint Director of Administration, Kaivalyadhama for their encouragement to work on the proposed area of research. The authors thankfully acknowledge the authority of Rajasthana Prachya Vidya Pratishthana, Bikaner, Rajasthan, from where the manuscript of the current study was procured. The authors also record their thankfulness to all the staff of PLRD for their unfailing support. The library of Kaivalyadhama was of immense help to the authors. They extend their hearty thankfulness to the staff members of the library. Special thanks are conveyed to Shri P. H. Raut for his prompt and presentable typesetting. The authors are also indebted to Shri R. K. Bodhe for his valuable suggestions and advice.

 
  References Top

1.
Gharote, M. L., Jha, V. K., Devnath, P., & Sakhalkar, S. B. (Eds.). (2006). Encyclopaedia of Traditional āsanas. Lonavala, MH: The Lonavala Yoga Institute.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Digambar, S., & Gharote, M. L. (Eds.). (1978). Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā. Lonavala, MH: Kaivalyadhama SMYM Samiti.   Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Jaitrama. (n.d.). Yogāsanmālā (Sacitra) (Unpublished manuscript). Retrieved from Kaivalyadhama Library, Lonavala, MH. (Accession No. 15779).  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Maheshananda, S., Sharma, B. R., Sahay, G. S., & Bodhe, R. K. (Eds.). (2006). Jogapradipyaka. Lonavala, MH: Kaivalyadhama SMYM Samiti.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kapālakuraṇṭaka. (n.d.). āsanayoga (Unpublished manuscript). Retrieved from Kaivalyadhama Library, Lonavala, MH. (Accession No. 29126)  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kuvalayananda, S. (1993). āsanas. Lonavala, MH: Kaivalyadhama SMYM Samiti.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Siddhāntamuktāvalī (Unpublished manuscript). (n.d.). Retrieved from Kaivalyadhama Library, Lonavala, MH. (Accession No. 15787)  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Digambar, S., & Kokaje, R. (Eds.). (1998). Haṭhapradīpikā (2 nd ed.). Lonavala, MH: Kaivalyadhama SMYM Samiti.  Back to cited text no. 8
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15], [Figure 16], [Figure 17], [Figure 18], [Figure 19], [Figure 20], [Figure 21], [Figure 22], [Figure 23], [Figure 24], [Figure 25], [Figure 26], [Figure 27], [Figure 28], [Figure 29], [Figure 30], [Figure 31], [Figure 32], [Figure 33], [Figure 34], [Figure 35], [Figure 36]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Method
Results
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Acknowledgments
References
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